Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Toulmin Model in Relation to Social Media Effects Essay Example

Toulmin Model in Relation to Social Media Effects Essay Example Toulmin Model in Relation to Social Media Effects Paper Toulmin Model in Relation to Social Media Effects Paper Essay Topic: Social Media Toulmin Media: The Downfall Nisha Abraham Sullivan University ENG 204: Advanced Writing July 11, 2013 Abstract Social Media is affecting our society in a negative way. From being the number one cause of divorce, ruining people’s careers, and being a haven for teen suicides, many misfortunes arise due to social media. People may not notice its damaging side effects yet it is slowly but surely proving detrimental to all involved in the game. By taking a step back and maintaining self-control, any human being immersed in the frenzy of social media can enjoy its perks without getting caught up in the whirlwind of unfortunate events. Keywords: social media, internet, cyber, cyber bullying, suicide, divorce, Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn, society. Social Media: The Downfall From the girl who played in your sandbox twenty years ago to the man who fathers your soon-to-be adopted child from India, social networking websites grants you the opportunity to connect with just about anyone you please in a way you couldn’t have years ago. While such an opportunity sounds like what eating a bowl of your favorite ice cream feels like, being a part of the cyber world can prove to be disadvantageous. Just like almost anything in life, social media provides its perks but it has its downfalls as well. Social media is most definitely having a negative impact on society. While social networking allows people in the workplace to interconnect with each other and other prospects, sites such as Facebook and Pinterest can serve as one of, if not the, biggest distractions to people at their place of work. Social media significantly hinders efficiency and productivity which causes people to get less work done. Who wants to focus on monotonous tasks when one can look at pictures from last weekend’s epic pool party? No one. While society encourages multitasking, â€Å"Research confirms that whether you are 22 or 62, trying to do two things at once ensures that neither will be done well. By definition, one task interrupts the other, and such interruptions have a profoundly negative effect on productivity† (Weddle, 2011, para. 9). By subconsciously allowing social media to sucker minds away from important tasks at hand, people can result in job loss, low self-esteem due to job loss, and further being consumed into social media due to new free time. Alongside being able to connect with peers leisurelier, being able to connect with foes and online predators are just as easy. Adults can be just as easily duped, but kids are usually more prone to becoming victims of online bullying. Social media networks make cyber bullying that much easier and causes victims to lose self-confidence and lack self-esteem. â€Å"Social networking sites were used in 48 per cent of all the suicide cases, while messaging (text, pictures or video) were used in 25 per cent of the cases† (CBC News, 2012, para. 18). It is in plain sight and shown several times in statistics that cyber bullying has one of the strongest ties to teen suicide payable to social networking sites and online attackers taking advantage of easily influenced youth. Yet another example of how social media has plagued our society is the fact that it influences people to make their private lives more public. While it is almost idolized to share your inner-most thoughts and personal photos on your personal social networking page, it can damage your future because anything on the internet is on there forever. Future employers will easily be able to view your most unflattering moments during background checks and will undoubtedly have a negative effect on your future job opportunities. â€Å"These â€Å"boundary-crossing† technologies blur the already elusive line between the private and the public, the home and the workplace. Private information that was previously segregated now becomes easily accessible to employers, colleagues, recruiters, and clients, among other perhaps unintended audiences† (Abril, 2012, para. 4). Yes, most social media sites attain privacy settings but one must always remember there are hiccups in everything on the internet and no guarantees leaks will not occur. As much as social media has managed to ruin our society, it plays a positive role for the public as well. Social media allowed people to use their networks as a form of reaching out to old friends and family across the world. With America being known as the melting pot of the world, our society has several people with family on the other side of the Earth. With social media in effect, this permits people to stay in touch with long lost loved ones and keep ties tight. Not only has it sanctioned friends and family to keep in touches but has granted people to relocate birth parents and unknown family members as well. Yes, social media has failed our society greatly but there is always a rainbow somewhere after a rainy day. Social media can play a positive role by bringing people back together. Even though the world may seem small, we have a larger community than most can see with their eyes. The internet blinds people from the dark abyss of deceit, lies, and secrets but it is gradually becoming more apparent to society what can come about from misuse of social media. With research, attention, and self-control, society can overpower the dark side of social media and turn it into a sunny one.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Free Essays on Through My Brothers Eyes

The use of first person narrative in â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† helps to portray the thoughts and emotions of a man facing the difficult streets of Harlem. The author, James Baldwin, tells a story that depicts the challenges for a young man and his brother Sonny. He writes about their childhood and the hardships that they encountered, and because it is written from the narrator’s thoughts, the reader is able to fully appreciate the character’s feelings and experiences. It provides a greater understanding of how the situations actually affected him and it emotionally ties the reader to the story. The narrator writes little about his own life, but recites incidents of his brother’s life to reveal the challenges of Harlem. The narrator develops the character of his brother throughout the story. When he first find out that his brother, Sonny, has been arrested for drugs, he recalls the innocent boy that he remembers from his childhood. â€Å"...his face had been bright and open, there was a lot of copper in it; and he’d had wonderfully direct brown eyes, and great gentleness and privacy† (117). The reader experiences the story through the narrator, and thus begins to see Sonny’s character as he does. He believed his brother was full of potential and he was shocked to find out that his brother had fallen into this kind of trouble. He says, â€Å"I couldn’t believe it: but what I mean by that is that I couldn’t find any room for it anywhere inside me† (117). The reader feels the anguish and confusion of the narrator and tries to understand the situation as he does. He then takes the reader back through his memories and they experience them together, while trying to make sense of the situation. As the story progresses, the narrator continues to face the challenge of understanding his brother, understanding why Sonny doesn’t care and why he chooses the things that he does. He feels an obligation to look after his l... Free Essays on Through My Brothers Eyes Free Essays on Through My Brothers Eyes The use of first person narrative in â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† helps to portray the thoughts and emotions of a man facing the difficult streets of Harlem. The author, James Baldwin, tells a story that depicts the challenges for a young man and his brother Sonny. He writes about their childhood and the hardships that they encountered, and because it is written from the narrator’s thoughts, the reader is able to fully appreciate the character’s feelings and experiences. It provides a greater understanding of how the situations actually affected him and it emotionally ties the reader to the story. The narrator writes little about his own life, but recites incidents of his brother’s life to reveal the challenges of Harlem. The narrator develops the character of his brother throughout the story. When he first find out that his brother, Sonny, has been arrested for drugs, he recalls the innocent boy that he remembers from his childhood. â€Å"...his face had been bright and open, there was a lot of copper in it; and he’d had wonderfully direct brown eyes, and great gentleness and privacy† (117). The reader experiences the story through the narrator, and thus begins to see Sonny’s character as he does. He believed his brother was full of potential and he was shocked to find out that his brother had fallen into this kind of trouble. He says, â€Å"I couldn’t believe it: but what I mean by that is that I couldn’t find any room for it anywhere inside me† (117). The reader feels the anguish and confusion of the narrator and tries to understand the situation as he does. He then takes the reader back through his memories and they experience them together, while trying to make sense of the situation. As the story progresses, the narrator continues to face the challenge of understanding his brother, understanding why Sonny doesn’t care and why he chooses the things that he does. He feels an obligation to look after his l...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Unit 4 Science DB Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Unit 4 Science DB - Essay Example This list serves as guide for EPA determining which sites warrant further investigation. It was painfully surprising to know that even Florida is also having as many as 49 such sites. Though, with EPA’s efforts, 21 sites have already been cleaned up.One such site in our nearby was BMI-Textron with EPA ID as FLD052172954. It is situated at 1211, Silver Beach Road in the Tri-City Industrial Park, Lake Park, Florida. It was proposed in NCL list on 06/24/88 and it was deleted from it on 11/18/04 after cleanup. BMI-Textron (BMIT) was in business of making of chrome backed glass plates, used for manufacture of electronic components. Materials and chemicals that were used for this product included cerium oxide, ceric ammonium nitrate, chromium, acetone, potassium ferrocyanide and possibly fluoride (EVA website). Various processes of manufacturing operation like chromium stripping operations, glass cleaning, coating, polishing, rinse waters and reverse osmosis water purification etc., generated liquid wastes. These wastes were disposed of on site. Initially BMIT used percolation ponds under a Florida Department of Environmental Regulation (FDER) permit for disposing of cyanide wastes and later installed additional drain field to dispose of wastewater from a Reverse Osmosis plant. As per terms of FDER permit four wells were constructed on site to monitor permit compliance. A monthly report of sample was also to be taken. One monthly report of sampling data showed higher than permitted standards for nitrate, total dissolved solids and pH. Accordingly in 1983, FDEP issued a violation notice BMIT. Later investigations determined concentrations of arsenic, cyanide, fluoride, and sodium contamination in the soil and groundwater. It was affecting approximately 106,000 people in Lake Park, Riviera B each, North Palm Beach, Palm Beach Shores, and Palm Beach Gardens. These contaminations can

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Smith v Firstbank Corp. Legal and Regulatory Issues Case Study

Smith v Firstbank Corp. Legal and Regulatory Issues - Case Study Example The plaintiffs held that the private bulk sale of the shares by the defendants was not reasonable. They also reasoned that if the sale was commercially reasonable, then, the way the sale was carried was not reasonable (Clarkson, Roger and Frank 592). They also argued that the defendant never sought multiple offers or even the best price for the stock. Rules(s) The provision for the disposition of collateral in a commercially reasonable manner is to provide protection to the owner of the property under disposition. It is meant to ensure minimization of losses in the disposition. As a factor, price alone is not enough to prove reasonableness. Other factors such as the circumstances that surround other such sales and the effects of the use of other methods of sale would also affect commercial reasonableness of such a sale (Clarkson, Roger and Frank 592). Application The court considered several factors; †¢ Circumstances surrounding previous similar sale of shares necessitated the defendant’s choice †¢ The defendant sought multiple offers as evidenced by the e-mail to Oberon Securities †¢ The defendant sought the best price as indicated by the different in stock prices between the two sales (Clarkson, Roger and Frank 593). Conclusion The plaintiffs’ appeal against the summary judgment could not hold as the court determined that the defendant carried out the disposition in a commercially reasonable manner.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Sole Proprietorship Essay Example for Free

Sole Proprietorship Essay Firstly Mr. Rajkumar must understand that a limited company is a type of company which when set-up allows an entrepreneur to keep their own assets and finances separate from the business itself. This means that people who have invested in the business (the shareholders) are only responsible for any company debts up-to the amount that they have invested and no more. It is therefore a good way for a business to get investment without risk to a personal wealth. Since, Mr Raj wishes to shift from a sole proprietorship firm to a private one, an agreement has to be executed between the sole proprietor and the private limited company (once it is incorporated) for the sale of the business. In this process, for his guidance, I would list down below mentioned points regarding the pros and cons of shifting to a private limited firm:- * For a start, there is unlimited liability of business debts in a Sole Proprietorship, and which extends to even the private assets of the individual. In contrast, in a private limited company, the liability is limited to the extent of shares held but not paid. * In terms of the staff, just one person that’s the entrepreneur is sufficient to qualify for a valid Sole Proprietorship, while a minimum of two and maximum of 50 people are required for registration as a private listed company. * There is no separate legal entity for the venture, with the sole entrepreneur listed under Sole Proprietorship. In contrast, a private listed company has a corporate identity distinct from its individual members. * A Sole Proprietorship requires no registration before its starts operating. In contrast, a Private Company must be incorporated before the Registrar of companies so that it could be covered under legislation like service tax, professional tax, Provident Fund, ESI etc as applicable. * There is no charter document for the single-entrepreneur venture while a listed company needs to have a Memorandum and Articles of Association. * Property under sole proprietorship belongs to the individual. In case of a privately listed entity, the company owns the physical assets. * Since the individual and the sole proprietorship share the same identity, the individual can sue or be sued by concerned parties. In contrast, a company can sue or be sued only in its own name since it is a legally registered entity, independent of its members. * When it comes to taxation, a sole proprietorship is taxed as an individual would be on his/her earnings under different slabs. In contrast, a privately incorporated entity will be taxed as a company. Guidance to formation: In order to set-up a Limited Company, there are a few criteria that first have to be satisfied. These are laid out by The Companies Act 2006. * Firstly, Mr Rajkumar must have director identification numbers (DIN) and digital signature certificates in place * Secondly the Company must be registered with Companies House. It is there to help entrepreneurs who are planning to set-up a limited company, it guides you through what is required by the government and offers a number of services to help new start-ups register their business and succeed in the marketplace with few suggested names * Once the name is approved, the next step is drafting the memorandum and articles of association (MoA and AoA). * After the MoA and AoA are prepared they must be printed and sent to the concerned registrar for vetting and to mark out objections, if any. * The last step is to pay the registration fee, which varies on the basis of the company’s authorized capital, after which the company gets registered as a private limited company under the Companies Act, 1956 and gets its certificate of incorporation. There are some more things that are required by a private limited company, like getting a permanent account number and a company seal, after it is registered. However, unlike a public limited company, a private company can begin its operation right after getting a certificate of incorporation and complete the rest of the formalities simultaneously.

Friday, November 15, 2019

My term paper :: essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  What Came first the chicken or the egg? For centuries man has struggled with the question of our origin. Why are there so many distinctions in the creatures that inhabit this planet. Why are structures similar in a bird, a whale, a bat, and a human being creatures that seem to have no relation to one another. Although several theories have sprouted from different great thinkers of many cultures in many diverse parts of the world all of the theories seem to center around two main points divinity vs chance or for a more famous colloquialism Evolution Vs Creation. Once complete this paper should allow the reader to see not only the folly and boldness of evolution in the face of so many discrepancies, but also the sheer irrefutable beauty of creation in all of its complex simplicity   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the beginning God Created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was formless and empty, Darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters. And God said â€Å"Let there be light† and there was light Genesis 1:1-3 NIV  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The bible, one of the oldest pieces of written history that follows an entire civilization for over 4000 years not only gives fascinating tales of mystery, intrigue, wars, famines, loves and loses also gives a very specific account of the origin of man and indeed all life on this planet as well as in the universe. The simplicity of the verses tells us that the big bang was possible, with divine help, it gives no more than God said it and it was so which would agree with the abrupt abitrary eruption of the solar system that scientist describe. This insight allows us to delve even deeper into the awesome power of Gods word. Here in the beginning we see how just the word can form solar system, delving even deeper we catch a glimpse of what that means for us as human beings and our origin.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Classical evolutionary theory teaches that creatures change from one thing into another. For instance, amoebas changes from one celled creatures to multi celled creatures over time. Genesis in the first chapter tells us that things must reproduce â€Å"each according to its kind†. Recorded history and fossil records should support one of the theories. Evolutionist claim that it supports theirs however noted paleotologist have even noticed the apparent gaps in the record showing that there is a missing link.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Choose one case study and write an academic essay Essay

PART A = Identify the educational needs of the class/training group. Use these educational needs as the basis (headings) for outlining classroom practice, including strategies, in order to accommodate the diverse learning needs of the entire class/training group. Strategies are to be of a detailed, practical and realistic nature. PART B = Name the Education Queensland (or relevant educational body) policies, frameworks, statements and directives that will have implications for this class/training group (include website address). Note how these policies will support your planning that you have written about in part A. Due Date: 20th January, 2014 Course: Education Specialization: Early Childhood Lecturer/Course Examiner: Noah Mbano Word Count: 2380 This assignment will identify and address the educational needs present in the early childhood case study. The educational needs being addressed will be the basis for Part A, which are, English as a second language (ESL), cultural diversity, social skills, intellectual disabilities and behaviour management. Pedagogical practices and strategies will be suggested to cater for the diverse learning needs of all children attending the service. The focus will be on the delivery of learning opportunities, according to need, to maximise students’ learning capacity and not to label the children. Part B will support the pedagogical response and planning ideas outlined in Part A, by the relevant policies, frameworks, statements and directives from Educational government bodies that implicate the service. PART A English as a Second Language (ESL)/cultural diversity The case study states that the centre has a number of children with different cultural backgrounds. The first educational need relates to ESL and cultural diversity. Educators must respect the diverse cultural backgrounds and ensure equity, so children develop knowledgeable and confident self-identities (DEEWR, 2009). A positive sense of self is fostered when children are supported in their environment to feel safe, secure and supported (DEEWR, 2009). Early childhood educators should support students for whom English is a second language to develop their English language skills, empowering them to communicate and engage within their new environment. From the start of their enrolment, students and their families should be welcomed and feel a sense of belonging at the service. The centre’s philosophy should be based on an understanding that parents should be recognised as the child’s first and most influential educator, whilst supporting the National Childcare Accreditation Council’s quality area two ‘Partnerships with families’ (NCAC, 2005). In practice it has been found that, to support a smooth transition parents and child should be encouraged to have a settling in period, which can be used to share knowledge about the center; it’s curriculum and cultural background. Educators should exchange this information verbally as well as in a written form. During the settling-in period the child has the chance to meet new friends and to become more familiar in their new environment, whilst in the comfort of their parents. Enrolment strategies are to understand, support the child, his/her families and caregivers and to differentiate your program to support all cultures. Educators should build an understanding of individual culture including â€Å"norms, values, beliefs, languages, traditions, behaviours, symbols, activities, achievement, and possessions† (Ashman & Elkins, 2012). Educators can familiarised themselves with the families’ beliefs and values by providing the parents with English-language programs or translators, helping by collaborating and giving continuing support. Using these strategies to encourage family participation within the centre will support cultural diversity and an understanding of the world we live in. Example of  this would be celebrating cultural days, such as Naidoc week within the Aboriginal culture. Workers in the industry report that ways in showing a cultural understanding is to ask families to bring in family photos for display, to provide familiar words from their native language or invite them to talk about their culture or share a special dish are other possibilities. This will help ease the child into the classroom environment. To support the child, strategies such as simplifying language, making instructions clear, breaking down the steps, providing multiple technology devices of communication and observations to recognise confidence could be used. Have classroom routines and consistent expectations to help the child understand what they are expected to do. Educators should ensure individual expectations are clear and understood by children to reduce frustration and barriers from being formed (Ashman & Elkins, 2012). Social Skills The second educational need is the inclusion of social skills. Educators have the responsibility to provide a welcoming and safe environment, where children feel accepted and part of a group. Through social interactions children can share knowledge and develop confident self-identities (DEEWR, 2009). Educators should identify each student’s positive characteristics then use them to establish an understanding of interests to keep them engaged. This helps move towards an inclusive environment. An inclusive classroom should provide a safe, flexible learning environment where all students have sufficient support to achieve outcomes consistent with their capabilities, become willing to take risks, and construct knowledge that is personally relevant and meaningful. Differentiating the program experiences and assessment by taking on an individualised approach aims to promote success and self-esteem (Ashman & Elkins, 2012). It cannot be assumed that social inclusion will occur automatically to new students (Ashman & Elkins, 2012). Strategies to encourage social inclusion are to ensure all students are actively involved in the organisation of the classroom; the educator thus needs to build a positive relationship with the student, providing opportunities for social interaction in group work, games and activities. Educators are qualified enough to support students’ friendships and ensure that their classroom is socially responsive. Following up on these aspects should be done promptly with regular observation and review on progression  in social skills from the child. Through anecdotal evidence, documenting these observations have shown to support the reflection process and assist in justifying and preparing plans for the child’s individual needs, interests, strengths and weaknesses (Churchill et al, 2013). Intellectual disability The third educational need is the inclusion of children with intellectual disabilities. All schools aspire to have collaborative, school-based terms that are organised to develop supportive networks for students, including the intellectually disabled. Educators should recognise strengths and capabilities and not make assumptions about the students’ ability based on their diagnostic label. Reasonable steps should be taken to ensure students with disabilities are given multiple means for participating in learning. These would involve learning through multiple, examples, media and formats, choice of context and tools, opportunities for demonstration and level of challenges. Give students plenty of options for expressing what they know, and provide models, feedback and support for their different levels of proficiency (CAST, 2012). Multiple strategies can be guided by the principles from the ‘Universal Design for learning’, which is a framework that shifts educators’ understanding of learner differences. It challenges them to rethink the nature of curriculum materials and endow them with the inherent flexibility necessary to serve diverse learning needs (Wright, 2006, as cited in Module 4, 2014). Strategies that also facilitate this include, varying the type of activities or the method of instruction, providing additional human and technical resources, giving extra support, modifying the ways in which the student will respond, or changing the classroom environment. These variations should be designed in such a way that the student with a disability is able to participate in the learning experiences on the same basis as a student without a disability, and without experiencing discrimination. There is anecdotal evidence that contemporary approaches to intellectual disability emphasise equal ac cess, participation, and recognition that a person’s level of functioning will improve if appropriate, individualise and supports are provided. Behaviour management The fourth educational need is behaviour management. Before considering specific learning issues, there are a number of factors outside of the school that influence school behaviour issues; family, socio-economics, culture, religion and race; and socio-political factors. Educators should agree that it is important to establish a cohesive understanding of socio-culturally acceptable behaviours when addressing behaviour management. Strategies to encourage positive behaviour rely on a pedagogical approach that sees the educator making adaptations, so the students can work effectively. In practice is has been found that students with behaviour problems often learn best when tactile and kinaesthetic strategies are presented. According to Early Childhood Australia (2013) the two main reasons misbehaviour usually occurs is when, children are expressing their feelings and children who have not yet learnt how to do what is expected. Strategies aimed at preventing misbehaviour include setting clear limits with input from the children and teaching the children what behaviour is appropriate and what is not (Early Childhood Australia, 2013). A critical aspect of maintaining students with behaviour problems in an inclusive classroom is the recognition of the learning difficulties that students face (Mooney, Epstein, Reid, and Nelson, 2003, as cited in Ashman & Elkins, 2012). One of the most important strategies for any teacher is to be a role model and to create a supportive and welcoming classroom. This will encourage all students to persist and work together more inclusively. To encourage appropriate behaviour, staff to child ratios should be obeyed at all times. This will ensure adequate care is been given to each child. Routines to be followed, keeping mealtimes regular and not too late, as some children will be hungry and this can lead to misbehaviour due to irritability. This can be changed by being responsive, flexible and adopting an individualised approach to routines. However sometimes circumstances change suddenly and this can result in routines been disturbed, for example, changes at home and the circumstances affecting behaviour is out of your control. The main idea is to facilitate individuals in developing his or her authentic self, through fostering student’s knowledge in a number of different genres, within a school, family or social environment. As a result of the diverse economic, social, spiritual, cultural, and political realities of our individual lives, a single aim of education wouldn’t suit  everyone’s needs. Therefore we need to create opportunities that will lead a student to their own success, a success defined by the individual. After all research has shown that â€Å"the way children learn, is as unique as their fingerprints† (CAST, 2012). Including students with educational learning needs in the regular classroom will provide the children with opportunities to interact with more able peers. By interacting in small groups, students learn to listen to what others have to say, understand that they may have different perspectives, share information and ideas and express different points of view in socially acceptable ways. Although it may appear that time and considerable organisation is focused on children with educational needs, it will have a positive impact on the delivery of the curriculum. The strategies outlined can be used not only for the child in need but all other children in the class will benefit from the additional strategies that will in turn cater for the multiple ways of learning throughout the class. PART B The Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) is Australia’s first national framework, which forms an important written guideline for the unity of care and practices ensuring all children involved in early childhood education settings experience quality teaching (AGDEEWR, 2009). The EYLF’s curriculum supports children’s learning from birth to five years of age, as well as their transition to school. Part A mentions strategies that relate to the EYLF’s curriculum The ‘Being, Becoming and Belonging: The Early Years Learning Framework is the document used in all services implementing the National Quality Standard. It consists of a set of principals, practices and outcomes that advise educators that children have a strong sense of identity, children are connected with and contribute to their world, children have a strong sense of wellbeing, children are confident and involved learners and children are effective communicators. Strategies suggested in Part A directly relate to these outcomes from the EYLF by advocating play-based learning while recognising the importance of communication, language, social and emotional development (ACECQA, 2009). All elements are fundamental to curriculum making decisions and pedagogy in an early childhood setting. The National Quality Framework (NQF) is a tool to assist childcare providers to improve their services in the areas that  impact on a child’s development and empower families to make informed choices about which service is best for their child. The NQF has many implications for the centre, including a national legislative framework that consists of the Education and Care Services National Law and Education and Care Services National regulations, a National Quality Standard (NQS), an assessment and rating system, a regulatory authority and ACECQA. ‘The Guide to the National Quality Framework’ directs centres in implementing the framework. The National Quality Standard is responsible for administering, including approving, monitoring, and quality assessing and rating. Services are assessed and rated against the Seven Quality Areas; this ensures the organisation and its educator’s are meeting the standards and providing high-quality educational programs. The Seven Quality Areas that relate to all practices outlined in Part A, are; Educational program and practice, Children’s health and safety, Physical environment, Collaborative partnerships with families and communities, Staffing arrangements, Relationships with children, Leadership and service management. Education and Care Services National Law (Queensland) Act 2011 outlines the legislation that has implications for the service. It outlines regulations regarding inclusion and provisions. The National law establishes the ACECQA, which is responsible for ensuring that the NQF that is implemented consistently across all states and territories. The Child Care Regulation 2003 directs policies and outlines the lawful standards that implicate the service. These regulations implicate all practices and strategies outlined in Part A, by providing a directive for compliance. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) sets out rights in 54 Articles and is guided by four fundamental principles. The articles are about how adults and governments should work together to make sure that all children get all their rights. The four fundamental principles are, non-discrimination, the best interests of the child, survival, development and protection and participation. These protocols have implications for the service with its outline of the basic human rights that children everywhere have. This is put in place to ensure that services are meeting the basic needs of ch ildren, to help them reach their fullest potential. Many of the rights support planning strategies outlined in part A including the right to his or her own name and identity, the right to an education, the right to be  protected from abuse or exploitation, the right to express their opinions and have these listened to and, where appropriate, acted upon and the right to play and enjoy culture and art in safety (UNICEF, 2012). The Disabilities Discrimination Act (DDA) education standards outline the obligations to assist people with a disability under the DDA. The DDA therefore has direct implications for the service when catering for children with disabilities to ensure their right to participate in educational courses and programs on the same basis as students without disability. This means a person with disability should have access to the same opportunities and choices in their education that are available to a person without disability. These policies support the planning and implementation of differentiated learning, assessment, accommodations, adjustments, re-designing and the universal design for learning. Melbourne Declaration outlines a commitment to working to support the development and strengthening of early childhood education, to provide every child with the opportunity for the best start in life and there for has implications for the service. The ‘Commitment to Action’ supports the planning for part A in such areas as developing stronger partnerships and strengthening early childhood education, advocating services to work towards smooth transitions into schools, providing parents, carers and families with information regarding equity and supporting young Australians to become successful learners, confident and creative individuals and active and informed citizens (MCEECDYA, 2008). References Ashman, A., & Elkins, J. (Eds.). (2012). Education for Inclusion and Diversity (4th ed.). Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia Australian Children’s Education & Care Quality Authority (ACECQA). (2011). Guide to the National Quality Framework. Retrieved from Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) for the council of Australian Governments (2009). Being Belonging Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia. Canberra, ACT: DEEWR. CAST,inc. (2012, May 3). National centre on Universal Design for Learning: UDL at a glance [Video file]. Video posted to Churchill, Rick. (2nd Ed.). (2013). Teaching: making a difference. Milton Qld: John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd. Early Childhood Australia. (2013). Managing challenging behaviour. Retrieved from Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs. (2008). Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians. Retrieved from Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, {MCEETYA} (2003). A National Framework for Professional Standards for Teaching. Retrieved January 2, 2014, from source. Module 4 – Differentiating the curriculum and universal design principles. (2014). Retrieved January 2, 2014, from National Childcare Accreditation Council. (2005). Quality Improvement and Accreditation System: Quality Practices Guide. Retrieved from Queensland Government. (2012). Disability Discrimination Act 1992. Retrieved from Unicef. (2012). Convention on the Rights of the Child. Retrieved from

Sunday, November 10, 2019


TABLE OF CONTENTS: 1: Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 2 2: What is Irrationalism?†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 2 3: Origins of Irrationalism†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 2 3. 1: The Limits of Rationalism†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦2 3. 2: The Religious Issue†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 3 4: Historical Synopsis†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦3 4. 1: Ancient Greek Era†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦4 4. 2: Medieval Mysticism†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 4 4. 3: Modern Era†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 4. 4: The Historical Culmination of Irrationalism†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 5 4. 5: The Twentieth Century†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦6 5: Critical Evaluation†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦7 5. 1: Irrational vs. non-rational†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â ‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 7 6: Conclusion†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 8 7: References†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦9 1. 0: INTRODUCTION: The term irrationalism, which depicts a 19th and early 20th century philosophical movement, is a trend that claims to enrich or broaden human apprehension of life beyond the horizon of reason.This movement, as shall be demonstrated in this work, arose as a sort of reaction against the traditional over bloating of the capacities of human reason. Thus, it sought to incorporate other aspects of human life such em otions, will, passion and even faith. Accordingly, such movements like voluntarism, mysticism or religion, romanticism et al, find their place within this trend. But it must be noted at once that this movement does not seek to negate or refute the capacities of human reason.Instead it seeks to postulate that with rationality alone, human beings cannot explore certain areas of life which are in themselves unavoidable experiential data of human life. It is to delineate elaborately on the tenets of this trend that this work is poised to do. To achieve this, we have opted to render this exposition in accordance with the above given outline. 2. 0: WHAT IS IRRATIONALISM? Irrationalism refers to â€Å"any movement of thought that emphasizes the non-rational or irrational element of reality over and above the rational† .More than a school of thought, irrationalism is a multi-faceted reaction against the dominance of rationalism. As such, it played a significant role in western cultur e towards the end of the nineteenth century and at the beginning of the twentieth century. Irrationalism need not be opposed to reason. It can consist of a simple awareness that the rational aspect of things tends to be overemphasized and that this needs to be compensated by an emphasis on intuition, feeling, emotions, and the subconscious, etc . 3. 0: ORIGINS OF IRRATIONALISM:There are at least two main sources of irrationalism, viz: ?The Limits of Rationalism: First, we see that even the most consistently rationalist approach of the world will yield, in the end, some ultimate notions that can no longer be grasped or expressed through rational language. Such include questions of truth, goodness, beauty, and so on). This clearly appears in ancient Greek philosophy. In the eighteenth century Enlightenment, a somewhat superficial confidence in reason was often maintained, and the question about ultimate realities was thus avoided.Still, Voltaire, a typical representative of the  "Lumieres,† was very skeptical about the natural lights of human reason and the ability to find definitive answers. Nineteenth century Positivism, finally, appeared as the culmination of human confidence in reason based on scientific advances. The positivists’ belief that scientific reason would make all other approaches obsolete, however, was soon largely rejected as a naive illusion. Irrationalism has therefore acted as a recurrent challenge to the belief that analytical or deductive reasoning was the alpha and omega of human mental activity . The Religious Issue: A second challenge to the preponderance of reason has come from the religious side. All the world’s religious traditions, based on immediate experience as much as revelation, have an acute awareness that the human predicament is at odds with the very ideal of perfection and happiness. In Christian thought, there is the dual notion of God’s judgment and his grace, a position best expressed by th e apostle Paul and revived most famously by the Reformers, such as Martin Luther King Jnr. nd Jean Calvin. The very notion of sin in a world created by an omnipotent and good God seems contradictory to reason. This dissonance is heightened by such paradoxical biblical formulations like, â€Å"those who want to live will die and those who want to die will live† and â€Å"the first shall be the last. † Thus, in the religious context, irrationalism takes on the nature of paradox and mystery. It is not possible for unaided human reason to fully grasp the meaning of the human condition.It has to be accepted that two basic facts (God and evil) coexists in a way that cannot be rationally explained. Only faith or spiritual intuition can somehow comprehend what is meaningless for reason alone. This position maintains a strong presence, even where attempts at offering rational explanations abound. In various different contexts, other world religions have approached the same basi c issue and offered a response that invariably amounted to a rejection of rationalism .In the religious world of the Far East (notably India and China), the response has often been sought in higher wisdom involving spiritual perception and allowing the believer to see how seemingly contradictory notions can harmonize on a higher plane. There is also a general insistence on the need to find the right attitude in approaching everyday life and its ultimate questions. Finally, in Zen Buddhism, enlightenment through direct experience, by which one is jolted out of one’s habitual condition, is seen as the answer.Thus, religion’s response to the limits of reason tends to have a strong emotional, experiential, and voluntary component. 4. 0: HISTORICAL SYNOPSIS: The history of western philosophy has been overwhelmingly dominated by the notion that reason and intellect determine the value of thought, culminating in eighteenth century rationalism, nineteenth century positivism, a nd twentieth century logical positivism . Irrationalism has thus mostly been a secondary reaction defended by a few minor figures, an element embedded in the thought of otherwise rational thinkers, or an underlying and largely hidden element.A closer look, however, reveals the importance of non-rational issues and the emotional factor, notably in fields like ethics, aesthetics, education, axiology, and even such a bulwark of rationalism as epistemology. Irrationalism became a major force in western culture for the first time in the nineteenth century. Its impact reached far beyond philosophy and the academia and was felt in the whole of society, including the political sphere, from the Romantic period to World War II, and beyond. ?Ancient Greek Era:Ancient Greek philosophy is generally recognized as the paragon of rational thinking. Its giants, Plato and Aristotle, viewed the rational mind as the essence of human identity. For Plato in particular, the realm of emotions linked to phy sical existence represented the lower counterpart to the eternal beauty and goodness of immaterial, rational souls. But his philosophy in fact culminates in a strongly mystical form of idealism. The immortality of the soul, eternal truth and beauty in particular, are introduced as the result of a higher insight, not of deductive or analytical thought.Such a trend continued in Neo-Platonism. Plato and his mentor Socrates are also related to the Mystery religions of ancient Greece which are often referred to in mythical form in the Platonic dialogues . The Eleusian Mysteries and the Delphic Sibyl are two examples of what Nietzsche would later call the â€Å"Dionysian element of exuberance and spiritual drunkenness† in Greek culture—an element that would combine with the plastic and formal element of light, the Apollonian element, to produce the masterpieces of Greek culture.In earlier Greek philosophy, that element could already be found in the works of Empedocles and Py thagoras. It was very influential in Greek tragedy and poetry. The cryptic aphorisms of Heraclitus, another pre-Socratic philosopher, also stand in stark contrast to the smooth flow of rational discourse, though his dialectic does not directly advocate irrationalism . Finally, the notion of destiny of fate arbitrarily willed by the gods of the Olymp constitutes an endorsement of irrationalism. Within such notions, things don’t make sense.They just have to be accepted. ?Medieval Mysticism: In medieval thought, irrationalism appears in the form of mysticism and voluntarism. Even Thomas Aquinas, probably the most rationally oriented of the middle age theologians, had a mystical experience towards the end of his life in which it appeared to him that all he had written was like â€Å"straw† . Mystically oriented writers like Meister Eckhart and Jakob Bohme saw knowledge of God as limited to negative theology. For the via negativa, the only positive statements that could be made about God were those negating ossible limitations of his Being (God is not finite, etc. ). The whole history of medieval thought – which reflected Christianity, Judaism and Muslim—was about defining the boundaries of the rational philosophical approach in its confrontation with faith, i. e. an approach that transcends human reason. ?Modern Era: Among the great metaphysicians of the seventeenth century such as Descartes, Leibniz, inter alia, French Catholic thinker Blaise Pascal represents an illustrious exception.The highly intellectually gifted mathematician came as an early precursor of Christian existentialism and famously stated that the â€Å"heart has its reasons that are unknown to reason† . Pascal also made the equally famous distinction between the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and the â€Å"God of the philosophers,† i. e. , understanding through revelation and understanding through reason . Pascal’s position somehow forms a contin uation of the Augustinian tradition defended by Duns Scotus and its volutaristic emphasis on the will to believe, rather than rational conviction. The Historical Culmination of Irrationalism: The real breakthrough of irrationalism came with the backlash against the rationalism of the Enlightenment and the subsequent wave of Positivism. At the end of the eighteenth century, Immanuel Kant had concluded that reason cannot give certain and ultimate knowledge about reality, especially not about God and the transcendent. In this, he wanted to make place for faith, which he also saw as a form of reason. The question over what counts as reason and what does not would thus later become an important one.For many, â€Å"anything not related to scientific knowledge of the empirically known universe does not qualify as reason† . For others, especially in the era of Romanticism, â€Å"the mind’s innate ability to recognize the reality of the Ultimate represents the highest peak of reason† . At this point, one has a convergence between rationalism and irrationalism, with mostly a difference of terminology. Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, Jakob Friedrich Fries, and Johann Georg Hamann are noted representatives of that period .The German Idealists are another example of thought systems developed with great emphasis on rational thought, but culminating in often highly irrational speculation. This is true even of Hegel, and his panlogism, and much more so Schelling, especially in his later, mystical phase . With Arthur Schopenhauer, irrationalism is embraced fully in the form of voluntarism . A blind will is presented as the foundation of existence, while the world of rational representations only forms the deceptive surface of things (in ways similar to Indian thought).Friedrich Nietzsche was equally skeptical of the west’s rational tradition and its shallow ethical codes, stressing such notions as the will to power and the playfulness of a child . In the Christian tradition, Soren Kierkegaard was strongly critical of the rational constructions of Hegel and proposed the â€Å"leap of faith† of the existentialist attitude as an alternative. His overall orientation, usually without the Christian connotation, would be maintained in the thought of twentieth century existentialists like Jean-Paul Sartre.For Henri Bergson, whose intuitivism was based on the notion of elan vital (vital thrust), rational thought was equally ill-equipped to grasp the essence of things. Finally, even a strongly intellectual philosophy like Edmund Husserl’s phenomenology is based on intuition as an element that comes prior to rational analysis in the perception of reality. The above list of names, to which many others could be added, exemplifies what Paul Tillich had in mind when he referred to the strong irrational undercurrent in western thought.Philosophical irrationalism would expand into many other areas of culture, including history (as sho wn in the works of Wilhelm Dilthey and Oswald Spengler) and, most famously in psychoanalysis (as shown in the works of Sigmund Freud, Carl-Gustav Jung). The latter’s implication is that irrational unconscious forces are really shaping human life. William James would espouse another form of non-rational emphasis in explaining the workings of the mind and that is Pragmatism, which argues that positions are essentially justified when they work. The Twentieth Century: The clash between rationalism and irrationalism would continue throughout the twentieth century, with rationalism being reinforced by the stunning development of science and irrationalism being bolstered by the obvious senselessness of many world events. A possible point of convergence has been contemporary science’s recognition of the inadequacy of the traditional mechanistic worldview and its advocacy of a much greater sophistication in attempts to grasp the nuances of its key notions.This has led many to a bandon scientific reductionism and its denial of the unfathomable realm of the spirit. In the philosophical world, postmodernism has seen a wholesale rejection of all hitherto accepted certainties. Thus, there is paradox of a contemporary world where humankind has a firmer grasp and control over natural phenomena than ever, but one in which, at the same time, the rational nature of that world has been increasingly challenged in ontology and epistemology as well as in ethics (e. g.Nietzsche and more recently Michel Foucault and their refusal to accept given norms) . 5. 0: CRITICAL EVALUATION: From the foregoing, it is clear that much of what passes for irrationalism, in fact, does not challenge the validity of reason, but rather opens the possibilities of other realms of investigation that had been previously ignored by the rationalist tradition. This comes together with a rebellion against the rationalization of a reality that is perceived as absurd or ethical rules that are perceiv ed to be abusive in their pretension to be rationally grounded.Nevertheless, the thrust of our evaluation herein shall focus on distinguishing between two terms that may seem compounded. This shall enable us with the ability to conclude whether the philosophers of this trend were either irrational or non-rational. ?Irrational vs. Non-rational: The difference between non-rational and irrational is not as easy to define as it may appear. German authors, like the philosopher of religion Rudolf Otto, often use the equivalent of the English â€Å"irrational,† but translators of their writings prefer to use â€Å"non-rational† to avoid giving the impression of an anti-rational bias.Indeed, in a context such as Otto’s, irrational is meant to convey the meaning of something that eludes the grasp of reason, a depth dimension of the human psyche that cannot be appropriately expressed in rational language. It does not mean that the author rejects the rational discourse alt ogether. In the case of Otto, the contrary is the case. This author strongly stresses the need for academic discourse to proceed according to strict rational rules and to avoid the excesses of romantic enthusiasm. Otto merely wants to show that reason is not alone and that once it has spoken, something remains that can nly be grasped intuitively and expressed in symbols. Similarly, today’s sociology of religion generally understands myths as a genuine and irreplaceable component of the human discourse, one that can express certain realities better than straight scientific talk and even reach where that talk cannot go. There is no negative connotation attached to myth under these circumstances. 6. 0: CONCLUSION: In the end, the understanding of irrationalism in the sense of non-rational or irrational is a matter of worldview.For those who consider that the universe and if applicable, the Supreme Being, form a whole that is non-contradictory and where intellect, emotion, and wi ll coexist harmoniously as different aspects of that reality, non-rational will have to be chosen as the proper expression. In that perspective, irrational will have to be reserved for the cases of opinions or behavior that fails to abide by the accepted rules of reason—not to describe that which transcends the realm of reason. In the main, few will defend a strong version of the opposite position that contradiction lies at the heart of everything.Such a position would make any discourse impossible, including that of those who hold this position. But various thinkers have emphasized the paradoxical nature of reality. In such a view, reality may not be fully contradictory, but it presents essential features that will always stand in paradoxical position to each other. Such is in general, the position of dialectical philosophy. Other strong forms of irrationalism are those which argue a fundamentally absurd nature of the world or the complete irrelevance of the rational discour se.Be these as they may, we rest our case in the contention that irrationalism stands at par with rationalism with only a slight difference in their respective emphasis. REFERENCES: ?Benne, Kenneth D, Contemporary Irrationalism and the Idea of Rationality, In: Studies in Philosophy and Education. Volume 6, Number 4 / December, 1969 ? Bergson, Henri, Creative Evolution. Dover Publications, 1998, ISBN 978-0486400365 ? Dewolf, L. H, Religious Revolt Against Reason, Greenwood Publishing, ISBN 978-0837100616 ? Kierkegaard, Soren, Concluding Unscientific Postscript.Princeton University Press, 1941. ISBN 978-0691019604 ? Kierkegaard, Soren, and Howard Vincent. Philosophical Fragments, Princeton University Press, 1962. ISBN 978-0691019550 ? Nietzsche, Friedrich, Beyond Good and Evil. Digireads. com, 2005, ISBN 978-1420922509 ? Nietzsche, Friedrich, and Walter Kaufmann, On the Genealogy of Morals and Ecce Homo, Vintage, 1989. ISBN 978-0679724629 ? Pascal, Blaise, Pensees, LGF Livre de Poche, 2000, ISBN 978-2253160694 ? Plato, The Symposium, Penguin Classics, 2003, ISBN 978-0140449273 ?Schopenhauer, Arthur, â€Å"Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung†, 1818/1819, vol. 2: 1844 (The World as Will and Representation, sometimes also known in English as The World as Will and Idea), Dover Publications, 1966. ISBN 978-0486217628. ?Stumpf, Samuel E, â€Å"Philosophy: History and Problems†, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. , 1221, Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY, 10020, ISBN 0-07-240635-6, Sixth Edition, 2003. OTHER SOURCES: ?Encyclopedia Britannica. com. ?Guide to Philosophy on the Internet. ?Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ?The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Friday, November 8, 2019

A Collection of Classic and New Poems for Winter

A Collection of Classic and New Poems for Winter When the cold winds begin to blow and the nights reach their longest stretch at the solstice, winter has arrived. Poets through the ages have lent their quills and pens to write verses about the season. Snuggle up around the fireside with a snifter of brandy or a mug of hot chocolate or go out to greet the late morning sunrise and contemplate these poems. This anthology of winter poems begins with a few classics before suggesting some new poems for the season. Winter Poems from the 16th and 17th Century The Bard of Avon had several poems about winter. No wonder, since the Little Ice Age kept things chilled in those days. William Shakespeare,â€Å"Winter† from  Loves Labours Lost (1593)William Shakespeare,â€Å"Blow, Blow Thou Winter Wind† from As You Like It (1600)William Shakespeare,Sonnet 97 - â€Å"How like a winter hath my absence been† (1609)Thomas Campion,â€Å"Now Winter Nights Enlarge† (1617) Winter Poems from the 18th Century The pioneers of the Romantic Movement penned their poems end of the 18th Century. It was a time revolution and enormous changes the British Isles, the colonies, and Europe. Robert Burns,â€Å"Winter: A Dirge† (1781)William Blake,â€Å"To Winter† (1783)Samuel Taylor Coleridge,â€Å"Frost at Midnight† (1798) Winter Poems from the 19th Century Poetry blossomed in the New World and female poets also made their mark in the 19th century. Besides the power of nature in winter, poets such as Walt Whitman also took note of the technological and manmade environment. John Keats,â€Å"In drear-nighted December† (1829)Charlotte Brontà «,â€Å"Winter Stores† (1846)Walt Whitman,â€Å"To a Locomotive in Winter† (1882)Robert Louis Stevenson,â€Å"Winter-Time† (1885)George Meredith,â€Å"Winter Heavens† (1888)Emily Dickinson,â€Å"There’s a certain Slant of light† (#258)Emily Dickinson,â€Å"It sifts from Leaden Sieves† (#311)Robert Bridges,â€Å"London Snow† (1890) Classic Winter Poems from the Early 20th Century The early 20th century saw enormous changes in technology and also the carnage of World War I. But the change of season to winter was a constant. No matter how much mankind seeks to control the environment, nothing holds back the onset of winter. Thomas Hardy,â€Å"Winter in Durnover Field† (1901)William Butler Yeats,â€Å"The Cold Heaven† (1916)Gerard Manley Hopkins,â€Å"The Times Are Nightfall† (1918)Robert Frost,â€Å"An Old Man’s Winter Night† (1920)Wallace Stevens,â€Å"The Snowman† (1921)Robert Frost,â€Å"Dust of Snow† and â€Å"Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening† (1923) Contemporary Winter Poems Winter continues to inspire modern-day poets. Some may achieve the title of classics in the decades to come. Browsing them can enlighten you as to how poetry is changing and people are expressing their art. You can find most of these poems online. Enjoy this selection of poems on winter themes from contemporary poets: Salvatore Buttaci, â€Å"From Cold Unblinking Eyes†Denis Dunn, â€Å"Winter in Maine on Rte 113† and â€Å"Silent Solstice (Winter Becomes Maine)†Jim Finnegan, â€Å"Flightless Bird†Jesse Glass, â€Å"The Giant in the Dirty Coat†Dorothea Grossman, Untitled winter poemRuth Hill, â€Å"Land of Long Shadows†Joel Lewis, â€Å"Making a Meal Out of It†Charles Mariano, â€Å"This Winter†Whitman McGowan, â€Å"It Was So Cold†Justine Nicholas, â€Å"Palais d’Hiver†Barbara Novack, â€Å"Winter: 10 degrees†Debbie Ouellet, â€Å"North Wind†Joseph Pacheco, â€Å"Cold Winter Morn in Florida†Jack Peachum, â€Å"The Migrant†Barbara Reiher-Meyers, â€Å"Blizzard† and â€Å"Sweet and Bitter†Todd-Earl Rhodes, Untitled poemRobert Savino, â€Å"Shortcut Through the Storm†Jackie Sheeler, â€Å"Underground Xmas†Lisa Shields, â€Å"Reaching for White† and â€Å"Climate Change†Aldo Tambellini, â€Å"October 19, 1990†Joyce Wakefield, â€Å"Winter Conversation†

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

The Meanings and Variations of Sister

The Meanings and Variations of Sister The Meanings and Variations of Sister The Meanings and Variations of Sister By Mark Nichol Sister, from the Old English word sweoster and cognate with the Latin term soror, means not only â€Å"a female with one or more parents in common† but has also come, by extension, to refer to a woman with whom one has a bond or a common interest. It also applies to national or racial commonality, as in the term â€Å"soul sister,† which in American English describes a black female. In addition, it can refer loosely to a female relative or a girl or woman with whom one has an affinity, including among feminists; it is also slang for referring to a female in general. In religious contexts, it denotes a female member of a religious order. Because nuns often served as nurses, in British English, sister is still synonymous with nurse. Sis is an informal abbreviation, often used in direct address by a sibling, as is sissy, though this term acquired the pejorative connotation of an effeminate man. The quality of being a sister, literally or figuratively, is sisterhood; the term also applies to a society of sisters, such as a religious community of women. Sister-german is a technical legal term pertaining to the default definition of sister- â€Å"a woman or girl who has both of the same parents as a given person,† as opposed to a half sister, who shares only one parent, or a stepsister, the daughter of a stepparent. (The term german, from the Latin word germanus, means â€Å"having the same parents† and is unrelated to the proper noun referring to a person from Germany.) A blood sister is literally a sister by birth or figuratively someone with whom one shares a bond of loyalty; this term, inspired by â€Å"blood brother,† alludes to the ceremonial exchange of blood between two men, often by mingling blood at the point of a slight self-inflicted wound. â€Å"Big sister† refers to one’s older female sibling or to a woman who mentors a girl to whom she is not related. Phrases that include the word include â€Å"sister act,† a term from vaudeville describing a variety act consisting of two or more sisters, and â€Å"sob sister,† slang for an advice columnist or a writer of sentimental stories supposed to appeal primarily to women, alluding to the emotional reaction expected of female readers when reading such material. â€Å"Weak sister† is an allusion to the supposed inferiority of women that refers to an ineffectual, unreliable, or weak person in a group. Meanwhile, a sister language is one in the same language family, such as Spanish as compared to Portuguese and vice versa, while a sister city is a municipality that has established a cultural-exchange connection with a city in another country. In construction, to sister is to strengthen a structural element by attaching a similar component to it. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Spelling Test 150 Diminutive Suffixes (and a Cute Little Prefix)One "L" or Two?

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Health effects of air pollution Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Health effects of air pollution - Essay Example Inhalation of air pollutants causes distress to the respiratory system, which lead to development of chronic respiratory infections, and aggravation of ailments affecting the system. The air pollutants cause respiratory problems in various ways including blocking the air pathways after being deposited in the lungs, irritation and inflammation of the respiratory tract resulting to production of mucus and coughing. These effects increase the vulnerability of the affected person to developing infections of the respiratory system. Numerous medical research studies on the effect of air pollution on children indicate that their health is more prone to the emissions than adults are (WHO, 2005). Polluted air causes adverse effects to the growth and development of both unborn and born children. Several factors contribute to the increased vulnerability of children’s health to air pollution. These include the continuing growth and development process of the lungs, incomplete metabolic systems and undeveloped immune systems that makes them susceptible to respiratory infections (WHO, 2005). These factors could lead to higher exposure of the children to air pollutants and increase the toxicity of the substances once they enter into the respiratory system. According to WHO (2005, p18) the effectiveness of the detoxification system in children improves with time, during prenatal and postnatal period. Hence, children at prenatal stage are most susceptible to air pollution because the lungs and the respiratory syste m are at critical stage of growth and development. When the developing lungs are exposed to air pollution, their optimal functional ability reduces and the abnormality continues to adulthood, causing reduced functional reserve of the lungs (WHO, 2005). Reduced functional reserve in adulthood increases the vulnerability of infections due to ageing and exposure to other pollutants, such as smoking and work related exposures (WHO, 2005,

Friday, November 1, 2019

Explanation Graphic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Explanation Graphic - Essay Example he current method of registering students, the new system will be able to register students in the appropriate class and provide access on the start date of the course. This will be much easier than the current process, as a sales person register a student, and the IT person has to configure a lab machine for the students use. The registration will save administrative work, and provide a lower production cost while providing better quality. The system will provide a friendlier login process for the students. With the new system, integration will occur through the student portal, making it easier for the student to connect to a virtual lab machine, without having to use additional logon information throughout the duration of the course (Rijlaarsdam et al 9). Students will also find it easier to register for future courses and also see and previous courses they have attended. The lab machine will be automatically available on the start date of the course, and can undergo automatic extension for an additional 30 days access with a simple click of a button. Students now can convert into other classes efficiently, unlike the current method. The communication plan helps in setting up standards for communication. The project leader would need to establish the standards within which the communication will occur. The stakeholders would also need to be aware of the course of the communication with the indication of how and when it will take place. The communication plan enables the project leader to set the scope for all the communications that are relevant to the project. The communication plan is also significant for scheduling various projects, within a period, thereby making the stakeholders to be aware of the progress. According to Schriver’s model, the graphic is efficient in proper management of time since it offers the option of a search engine (Rijlaarsdam et al 9). Time saving is important in any project management especially when there is need to achieve a