Saturday, August 31, 2019
Diversity among individuals, as well as cultures, provides a challenge for nurses when it comes to delivering meaningful health promotion and illness prevention-based education. How do teaching principles, varied learning styles (for both the nurse and her patients), and teaching methodologies impact the quality of such education? How does understanding a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s view of health promotion and disease prevention guide you in teaching them? Provide an example. Education is impacted any time that the student (patient) does not understand what is being explained, so it is important for the instructor (nurse) to have multiple teaching styles and methodologies to ensure the information is clear and understood. Speaking with patients, while drawing pictures or diagrams, as well as giving them handouts to take home allows you to cover all but one type of learner. Understanding my patientÃ¢â¬â¢s view of health promotion and disease prevention helps guide me to what specific information the patient will need. For example, A 21 year old male who smokes tobacco and has multiple sex partners informs me that he has no desire to quit smoking and refuses you to discuss the matter with me. Attempting to educate this patient on quitting smoking will do harm than good. The patient will be frustrated and possibly angry at me for not respecting his feelings, this could possibly damage our nurse-patient relationship of trust and understanding. In this case I will respect the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s right to smoke and spend my time educating him on sexually transmitted diseases and the importance of safe sex. My 21 year old female tobacco smoker informs me that she would like to quit smoking but is having a hard time. In this situation I would speak with her about her difficulties quitting smoking, fears and anxieties. Provide information regarding medications that are available, programs and resources that are designed to help her, and other options like hypnosis and acupuncture. Understanding and being able to incorporate teaching principles, teaching methodologies, and learning styles are all very important in patient education and health promotion but it will do you little good if you do not have the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s buy in and willingness to change.
Friday, August 30, 2019
What is Research? People undertake research in order to find things out in a systematic way, thereby increasing their knowledge (Jankowicz, 1995). Ã¢â¬Å"SystematicÃ¢â¬ suggests that research is based on logical relationships and not just beliefs (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2010). To Ã¢â¬Å"find things outÃ¢â¬ suggests there are a multiplicity of possible purposes for your research (Becker, 1998). It is therefore an activity which has to be finished at some point to be of use.The results of research really are all around us in everyday life. Politicians often justify their policy decisions on the basis of research; Newspapers report the findings of research companies. Documentary programmes tell us about research findings and advertisers may highlight the results of research to encourage consumers to buy a particular product or brand. The most difficult hurdle to overcome in doing research is not in learning the techniques or doing the actual work or even writing the report.The bigge st obstacle, surprisingly, lies in figuring out what you want to know. Two problems are very common: choosing a topic which is too broadÃ¢â¬ ¦ or Ã¢â¬Å"dressing upÃ¢â¬ a topic (Kane, 1987) Formulating and clarifying the research topic is the starting point of research (Ghauri and Gronhaug, 2010; Smith and Dainty 1991). Most research originates from a general problem. Usually, the problem is broad enough that it could not be addressed in a single research study.Consequently, the problem is narrowed into a more specific research question. A well-constructed research question is one described by Maylor and Blackmon (2005, p. 54) which Ã¢â¬Å"identifies the scope of the research and guides the plan of the projectÃ¢â¬ . The research question is the central issue being addressed in the study and from this research objectives can be set. The table below sets out criteria to help devise useful research objectives. Criterion| Purpose|Transparency| The meaning of the research objective is clear and unambiguous| Specificity| The purpose of the research objective is clear and easily understood, as are the actions required to fulfil it| Relevancy| The research objectiveÃ¢â¬â¢s link to the research question and wider research project is clear| Interconnectivity| Taken together as a set, the research objectives illustrate the steps in the research process from its start to its conclusion, without leaving any gaps. In this way the research objectives form a coherent whole| Answerability| The intended outcome of the research objective is achievable.Where this relates to data, the nature of the data required will be clear or at least implied| Measurability| The intended product of the research objective will be evident when it has been achieved| Saunders (2012) Research Methods for Business Students, Table 2. 3 p. 44 Literature Review A literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge on a particular topic. Its ultimate g oal is to bring the reader up to date with current literature and forms the basis for another goal, such as justification for future research the area. Knowledge does not exist in a vacuum, and your work only has value in relation to other peoplesÃ¢â¬ (Jankowicz, 2005). It seeks to describe, summarise, evaluate, and clarify/integrate the content of previous researches and assists in limiting the scope of inquiry while conveying the importance of studying a topic to readers. Literature sources available include Primary, Secondary and Tertiary. Primary data is original data that has been collected from the original source with a purpose in mind.Secondary sources are the subsequent publication of primary literature and tertiary sources (search tools) are designed to either help locate primary and secondary literature or to introduce a topic. Tertiary Indexes Databases Catalogues Encyclopaedias Dictionaries Bibliographies Citation Indexes Secondary Journals Books Newspapers Governmen t Publications Primary Reports Theses Emails Company Reports Unpublished Manuscripts Some Government Publications Increasing time to publish Increasing level of detail Saunders (2012) Research Methods for Business Students Table 3. 3, p82 Primary versus Secondary ResearchPrimary data has not been published and so is more reliable, authentic and objective. It has not been changed or altered by human beings therefore its validity is greater than secondary data however it is important to remember it can only be considered as reliable as the people who gathered it. Gathering data in this way is time consuming, and incurs a high cost. More resources tend to be required and it can result in inaccurate feedback. Secondary data is less valid but it is readily available and can be reused. It is cheaper and quicker to obtain in comparison to primary data.In some circumstances primary data does not exist and so one has to confine the research of secondary data. The Research Process Research is not neutral, but reflects a range of the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s personal interests, values, abilities, assumptions aims and ambitions. Ã¢â¬Å"The research philosophy depends on the way you think about the development of knowledgeÃ¢â¬ (Saunders et al. 2000, p. 84) Collis and Hussey (2003, p. 52) highlight two main research philosophies and detail that there can be overlap between the two and both positions may be identifiable in any research project. They are the positivistic and phenomenological.Positivistic approaches are founded on the belief that the study of human behaviour should be conducted in the same way as studies conducted in the natural sciences. Therefore seeking to identify measure and evaluate any phenomena and to provide a rational explanation for it. This approach attempts to establish casual links and relationships between the different elements (or variables) of the subject and relate them to a particular theory or practice. Phenomenological approaches however, a pproach research from the perspective of understanding behaviour from the participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ own subjective frames of reference.Research methods are chosen, therefore, to try and describe, translate and explain and interpret events from the perspectives of the people who are the subject of the research. The following diagram describes the research process Ã¢â¬Å"onionÃ¢â¬ that supports the researcher to Ã¢â¬Å"depict the issues underlying the choice of data collection methodsÃ¢â¬ (Saunders, 2012 Research Methods for Business Students, Fig 4. 1, p. 128) The layers of research represent the following aspects: * Research philosophy; * Research approach; * Research strategy/methodology; * Time horizons; and * Data collection methods Research Approach Ã¢â¬â Deductive or Inductive? It is the theory that decides what can be observedÃ¢â¬ Albert Einstein Bryan & Bell (2007) state that the researcher will either use: 1) deductive in which a theory and hypothesis is developed and a strategy is designed to test the hypothesis, or 2) inductive approach will be used in which the data is collected and as the result of data analysis theory and hypothesis are developed. However, Mason (2001, p. 181) supports the use of more than one research approach, Ã¢â¬Å"it is worth pointing out that most research strategies (approaches) in practice probably draw on a combination of these (inductive or deductive) approachesÃ¢â¬ .What is the difference between method and methodology? A method is a technique used for gathering evidence or the various ways in which proceeding in gathering information. Methodology is the underlying theory of how research does or should proceed, often influenced by discipline. Research Strategy The research strategy is of paramount important in setting the parameters and creating the credibility of any study. According to Collis and Hussey (2003, p. 55) research methodology refers to the overall approaches and perspectives to the research proces s as a whole and is concerned with the following main issues: Why you collected certain data; * What data you collected; * Where you collected it; * How you collected it; * How you analysed it The choice of research strategy is dependent on the research questions and objectives, the extent of existing knowledge, the amount of time and resources available and the philosophical foundations (Saunders et al. 2007). There are various research strategies proposed by different authors including experiment, survey, case study, action research, grounded theory and ethnography. Experiment is a classical form of research which allows studying the effect of change, an independent variable can bring in another dependent variable (Hakim, 2000) * Survey is a methodology which is usually associated with the deductive approach and is mostly used in the situations where there is a need to collect the data from a large population in an economical manner (Saunder et al, 2007) * Case Study is defined as a Ã¢â¬Å"strategy for doing research which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidenceÃ¢â¬ (Robson, 2000: 178) * Action Research is focused on finding a way to bring about a change in a controlled environment * Grounded theory is often thought of as the best example of inductive approach as the hypothesis is developed from the data generated by a series of observations (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) * Ethnography is a research strategy which focuses on acquiring the social knowledge in order to understand the observed patterns of human activity (Hussey & Hussey, 1997) Ethical Issues Ethical concerns may emerge at all stages of research. Saunders et al. (2007, p. 31) summarise the main issues to consider, although ethical issues surrounding these items are not always clear: * The rights of privacy of individuals * Voluntary nature of participation Ã¢â¬â and the rights of individuals to wi thdraw partially or completely from the process * Consent and possible deception of participants (Appendix ? ) * Maintenance of confidentiality of data provided by individuals or identifiable participants and their anonymity * Reactions of participants to the ways which researchers seek to collect data * Effects on participants of the way data is analysed and reported * Behaviour and objectivity of the researcher Reliability and Validity
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Person-centred is about providing care and support that is centred or focused on the individual and their needs. We are all individual and just because two people might have the same medical condition, for example, Dementia, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that they require the same care and support. You will need to develop a clear understanding about the individuals you are working with. This includes their needs, their culture, their means of communication, their likes and dislikes, their family and other professionalsÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement so you can promote and provide person centred care and support. Individuality: Assumptions should never be made about an individual. They should never have to fit in with you or your employer. Individuals should be allowed and supported to make their own choices. Care and support needs should be tailored to suit each individual. This shows respect by preserving the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s dignity and individuality. Their personal beliefs should be respected. Independence: Allow the individuals you support to do things for themselves, however small. Being independent does not necessarily mean being completely alone, but being supported to do things for themselves. Take time to enable the individuals you support to be independent. Independence makes people feel in control of their lives and gives them a sense of self-worth. Privacy: You will need to understand each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s need for privacy and support this in the way you work. The availability of private space will be different in residential care home and home care environments. Irrespective of which environment, you should always ask permission before entering an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s room. Always knock on their door. Close doors when performing personal hygiene but first check the individual is happy with you doing so. Every individual should have time and spaces to do things in private if they should wish to, for example, meeting friends and family or making phone calls. Partnership: Working in partnership with other professionals, with colleagues, families and carers is an essential part of providing care and support. Person-centred care andÃ support is about a whole range of people working together to improve the lives of individuals. Partnership is all about the individual you are supporting and all of the partners involved will need good communication, sharing appropriate information, putting the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s best interests at the centre of everything that everyone does. Choice: Each individual you are supporting should be allowed and supported to make choices. They should be given thorough information in order to make informed choices themselves. Never take over because you can do things faster or because you think something should be done a particular way. Always involve the individual in decisions about their care and support. Sometimes individuals can be overwhelmed with choice, for example, individuals suffering from Dementia, may respond better if you give them two simple choices but this is much better than giving no choice at all. Must be able to communicate and listen well. Dignity: Dignity is what we feel when we are respected and it is what makes us feel important in society and in our lives. Whether individuals are eating, sleeping, washing, shopping or dying, care and support workers must help them to feel dignified. Be aware of the importance of preserving an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s dignity, ask them how they wish to be addressed; try not to rush them and take time to listen; use towels or clothing to cover them up when performing intimate care tasks. It is important not to stereotype or make guesses about individuals and their needs. Respect: Is showing an individual respect, you will support them in what they believe is important, whatever their age, culture, disability, gender, belief or sexual orientation. When working with other people or professionals, never ignore the individuals you are supporting. Always include them in the conversation, irrespective of the subject? Rights: Individuals you care for and support should continue to have the same rights as when they were living independently. Each individual you support has the right to say no, the right to have a relationship, the right to have a say about how they are supported. They have a right to choose what they eat and when, how they dress and when. They have the right to choose their friends and what they want to do with their time. You may have to make changes to take an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s rights into account. You may have to balance an individualÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ rights against your responsibilities and consider if either they or you are at risk? If you are concerned or unsure, check with your supervisor or manager. Choice and Control Ã¢â¬â Enabling people to make choices about the way they live and the care they receive. Communication Ã¢â¬â Speaking to people respectfully and listening to what they have to say; ensuri ng clear dialogue between workers and services. Eating and Nutritional Care Ã¢â¬â Providing a choice of nutritious, appetising meals, that meet the needs and choices of individuals, and support with eating where needed. Pain Management Ã¢â¬â Ensuring that people living with pain have the right help and medication to reduce suffering and improve their quality of life. Personal Hygiene Ã¢â¬â Enabling people to maintain their usual standards of personal hygiene. Practical Assistance Ã¢â¬â Enabling people to maintain their independence by providing Ã¢â¬Ëthat little bit of helpÃ¢â¬â¢. Privacy Ã¢â¬â Respecting peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s personal space, privacy in personal care and confidentiality of personal information. Social Inclusion Ã¢â¬â Supporting people to keep in contact with family and friends, and to participate in social activities. Working in a person centred way Person-centred approaches are about the individual being the centre of their care and support plan enabling them to have control over their lives. Person-centred approaches are about enabling individuals to live their own lives and not just providing a service. It is about focusing on the individual personÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and not the tasks that need completing. Person-centred planning is a way for individuals to plan for what they want now and in the future, together with the people in their lives who they like and trust. It is based on the following values: Everyone has a right to plan their own lives and be at the centre of any planning that is done for them. Be part of their community, live their lives as they want, and if they need support to do this for this support to be provided in a way in which they want it. The person is at the centre. Family members and friends are partners. Reflects what is important to the person and their capacities. Specifies the support the person needs to make a valued contribution to their community. Builds a shared commitment. Leads to continual listening and learning about what the person wants to get from their life. You should always reflect on and celebrate the diversity of theÃ people you are supporting. There are many reasons why individuals think and act the way they do and only by building up comprehensive knowledge about these important things can you help them to fulfil their wishes and needs. You can find out about an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s history, preferences, wishes and needs by looking at their Individual Needs Assessment. This will look at a variety of different things depending on the individual being assessed, for example, physical, emotional, social, spiritual, communication, support or care needs. The individual will need to be able to trust the person conducting the Individual Needs. Assessment and encouraged to use their strengths to feel confident that the process will lead to positive outcomes for them. Establish Consent when providing care or support A care or support plan sets out what care or support an individual needs. The Individual Needs Assessment will enable the required care and support to be determined. The care plan will contain lots of information, for example, medical history, family contacts, risk assessments. It is usually written by someone who has specifically been trained to do this. Your role is to make sure you read and work to the requirements of the care or support plan, to record any changes and to report significant changes. You will need to understand the boundaries of your responsibilities regarding the individuals you support. Just like your needs and desires change, so will those of the individuals you support. Changes could be from a whole range of aspects of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It is important to recognise that as needs change, how support is provided will also need to be reviewed regularly to see if any changes or adjustments are required. You have a responsibility to listen to individuals, to hear what they are saying, to write down any information about change in the care or support plan and contact your supervisor or manager if this is likely to have an impact on the level or type of care and support that is provided. Supporting an individual to plan for their future well-being may include the following, their: Sense of hope , Confidence , Self- esteem , Ability to communicate their needs , Ability to make contact with other people , Ability to show warmth and affection , Experience and showing of pleasure and enjoyment. Fulfilment is aboutÃ feeling satisfied, pleased, content, a sense of achievement and success. Supporting active participation Providing individuals with empowerment is important. Empowerment is about enabling the individuals you support to contribute and have an influence over the issues which affect the way they live. When individuals make choices, they have more control and feel valued. Providing individuals with empowerment to make informed choices enables individuals to maintain their rights of choice, equality and opportunity. Active Participation is a way of working that recognises an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s right to participate in the activities and relationships of everyday life as independently as possible; the individual is regarded as an active partner in their own care or support, rather than just a recipient. Being part of a community is particularly important to individuals who live on their own and do not work. It means they have relationships and make friendships with other people giving them a more fulfilling life. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter what kind of contribution they make or the type of activities they are involved in, just being part of something will give them a sense of belonging, a feeling of self-worth and independence. Your role as a care or support worker is to help individuals to make informed choices about things that happen every day and also in planning for the longer term. Each time you work with an individual you should be able to give them choices. IndividualsÃ¢â¬â¢ choices will be different depending on the types of tasks you are doing together and their abilities. Good communication is essential so that you can give choices and individuals can make them. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter what environment you support an individual in, there should always be plenty of opportunity to provide choices. Here are some examples: When would they like to get up? What would they like to wear? What would they like to eat and drink? What brands would they like to use, for example, shampoo, toothpaste, moisturiser? What activities would they like to take part in? You can support individuals to make choices by giving them encouragement and giving praise when they have made a choice. This will give them the confidence to continue to make choices about other aspects of their lives. If an individual identifies a particular hobby or activity they wish to participate in, it might be worth checking if there are local groups orÃ facilities that would be prepared to support the individual to participate. Ã Supporting an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s rights to make choices In order to enable an individual to make an informed choice, both you and the individual first need to think about what all of the available options are. You then need to look at what are good and bad about each option. Health and safety are important factors and must be put first for you, the individual and anyone else involved. The Mental Capacity Act provides the legal framework for capacity and decision making about health and social care and financial decisions. It applies to everyone aged over 16. You will need to consider whether the person you are supporting has capacity to make informed decisions or whether you need a formal mental capacity review. It is important to note that a person is assumed to have capacity unless it is proved otherwise. There is a four-step way to test for capacity: A person must be able to: 1. Understand the information relevant to a decision 2. Retain the information 3. Use the information as part of the decision making process 4. Communicate their decision In supporting a person to make a decision, you have a duty to assist the person in all four of these steps. For example, using appropriate communication methods to help the person to understand and communicate. Capacity is assessed specific to each decision and each occasion. For example, a person may have capacity to make a decision in the morning about what to wear, but not later that day in deciding if they want to move home. If someone is assessed as lacking capacity, any decision taken on their behalf must be in their best interests and you must consider if there are less restrictive options. For example, if a decision can be delayed until a person is less distressed, this is the best course of action. However, if a person does have capacity this over-rides what you may consider as an unwise decision. Each individual should have a formal risk assessment as part of their care and support plan. The risk assessment should contain information about the individual and the type of care and support they need. It willÃ provide the most appropriate options for keeping the individual and anyone else involved as safe as possible. It will also tell you how to do some tasks where these tasks have been risk assessed and the best option has been established. For example: A particular way of moving and handling is recommended for Mr X because he has health issues that mean he or she can only be moved in a particular way. Mr X doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like being moved this way and asks to be moved another way. You should always follow the risk assessment. You should report Mr XÃ¢â¬â¢s request to your supervisor / manager. You should always record any changes in Mr XÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes and in the way you perform tasks. Every effort should be made to support Mr X to be moved in the way he wants to be moved. He has the right to make this choice but an appropriately trained person will need to review the risk assessment first and work out if it is safe for all involved for Mr X to be moved in the way he wishes. You might not approve of or like the choice he has made. You might need more moving and handling training, perhaps for a specialist piece of equipment. However, the choice is not yours and you are not allowed to influence Mr X. In supporting Mr X to make his decision, you need to listen to him and put his wishes and best interests first. He is the customer and you are providing a service. This means the service must be provided in the way Mr X would like, as long as it is safe and approved through care and support plans and risk assessments. This is because the choices belong to Mr X, not to you. He needs to make his own decisions in order to feel he is in control of what happens to him. This leads to positive feelings around dignity, pride and satisfaction. When an individual has made a decision which you feel is risky, you need to make the individual aware of any consequences involved in the decision; however you should not try to influence the individual with your views and opinions. It is the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom of choice to make decisions about their own future and support. Providing they have the right information (including the advantages and disadvantages) to make an informed choice and have the capacity to understand their choice; it is part of your duty of care to enable them to do so. If a relative or friend has made a decision about anÃ individualÃ¢â¬â¢s care, support or life that the individual is not happy or comfortable with, you may need to support the individual to question or challenge the decision. It is important that you obtain and understand the facts and reasons surrounding the decision so you can make sure the individual has a clear understanding. If the individual remains sure that he / she is not happy with the decision, once he / she has this information, you can work with the individual to support them to challenge the decision. Any changes that are made as a result of this challenge must be safe for you, the individual and anyone else involved. You should never make changes unless you are trained to do so or your supervisor or manager confirms you can make the change. You should always record any changes in individualÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes and in the way you perform tasks. Promoting spiritual and emotional well-being Spiritual well-being is an integral part of mental, emotional and physical health. It can be associated with a specific religion but does not have to be. It is about an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s own journey to discover things of importance in their lives and enabling them to find purpose and meaning in life. The effects and impact of spiritual well-being is determined by each individual and can make a huge impact in their lives. Through spiritual well-being, individuals can become empowered and realize that even though they have issues, stressors, and challenges, they are not defined by their circumstances. A few of the numerous benefits of spiritual well-being include: Ã¢â¬ ¢Feeling content with your lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s situation Ã¢â¬ ¢Making time to spend alone and find inner peace Ã¢â¬ ¢Taking time to reflect and resolve lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s issues Ã¢â¬ ¢Finding satisfaction in a job well done Ã¢â¬ ¢Taking part in an active lifestyle rather than merely standing by and watching life as it passes Ã¢â¬ ¢Maintaining balance and control of life Ã¢â¬ ¢Building relationships Ã¢â¬ ¢Feeling purpose and meaning in life Ã¢â¬ ¢Accepting and growing from the challenges of life Emotional well-being is based on how individuals feel about themselves. Someone who is emotionally healthy: Ã¢â¬ ¢Understands and adapts to change Ã¢â¬ ¢Copes with stress Ã¢â¬ ¢Has a positive outlook on life and themselves Ã¢â¬ ¢Has the ability to love and care for others Ã¢â¬ ¢Can act independently to meet his or her own needs Everyone, including people who are emotionally healthy, have problems. If something or someone threatens our happiness or wellbeing, we would feel uncomfortable emotions such as anger, sadness or fear. When we experience something that enhances our situation, we feel emotions such as joy, satisfaction or a sense of achievement. The way weÃ¢â¬â¢re brought up and our culture have a great influence on how we feel. They help us to form ideas and decide what we care about. Everyone deals with situations in life differently. Sometimes an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s self-esteem can become so low that everything seems a lot harder to cope with compared with when they are feeling confident. Being emotionally healthy doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that you feel happy all the time. That is impossible. Good emotional health is about having lots of different emotions, and being able to accept them and talk about them. Signs that individuals are not coping well emotionally might include having a lack of self-confidence, having trouble with relationships or feeling unhappy a lot of the time. Because we are all so different and diverse, we have different and diverse views about every subject. You may not approve of or agree with the views of the individuals you support but your role is about working with them in ways that support their views. The best way to find out about an individual is to ask questions that are not threatening but show you have a genuine interest in the individual. By encouraging them to talk about themselves and listening to their views, you will learn a great deal about the individuals you work with. Through this learning, you will be able to meet their needs in ways that are sensitive and supportive of their views making individuals feel valu ed. Ã¢â¬ ¢Appreciated, cared about and loved Ã¢â¬ ¢Safe and secure Ã¢â¬ ¢Extra supported when they feel sad, depressed or lonely Ã¢â¬ ¢That they are not a burden but an important priority Ã¢â¬ ¢Listened to and respected Ã¢â¬ ¢Satisfied with relationships Ã¢â¬ ¢Independent and in control of their lives Ã¢â¬ ¢That they have a purpose and meaning to their lives You will need good communication skills and be able to listen but also to encourage individuals and show understanding and support for what is important to them in life. Each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s spirituality is greatly impacted by the community they are a part of and the relationships they take part in. Individuals may be able to find spiritual well-being programs in their local area. By promoting an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s spiritual and emotional wellbeing, you can help improve their self -esteem and make them feel valued and remain their own person. Focussing on what they can do rather than on what they canÃ¢â¬â¢t do, will encourage their independence and feeling of self -worth. It is also important to help individuals to deal with stress. Changes in situations and in their ability to do things can cause stress. However, by providing encouragement and positive support you can improve their inner self and quality of life.
CIS204 U4 Discussion - Coursework Example The connection created in the WAN is however private and secured, and cannot be accessed by the public. VPNs are good at establishing business connections between two sites using the IPsec or the Internet Protocol Security (IPS). The reason as to why this technology has been recommended to the company is the security in information flow. The technology is also good for connecting man sites, which can be helpful for customer care services. The numerous rooms in the hotel premise can all be connected to the customer care. Advantages of this type of technology is the cost associated with establishing it (Thrivenetworks 2015). Companies can establish the network at a cheaper price than in any other technologies used. The network is also highly protected from access by unauthorized people. This security ensures more secure communication by the people in it. For growing companies, this technology proves to be the most ideal as it does not need addition of other components so as to accommodate new users (Thrivenetworks 2015). Disadvantages of this technology are the complexity involved when there is addition of new infrastructure, and the security issues involved when using a mobile device to establish connection (Thrivenetworks 2015). WAN establishes a computer connection between two points. Several technologies can be used to establish connections between sites. VPN connection proves to be the best for business organizations due to the low cost and high level of security. For the business organizations, the best option for wireless solution would be a Cisco Network. The network could be configured to have a central switch board for easy control. This system would also be highly compatible with the VPN technology
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Review - Essay Example According to Kenneth, China, in-spite of making advancements in science was unable to emerge as a strong economy. It was troubled due to its non-integrated political framework that prevented free trade and exchange of goods between different regions (Kenneth, 12-15) Weak political structure not allowed much of innovations to be carried forward to the next level of production. However, Europe attempted for excellence in its work, brought new styles of production that reduced time and energy and facilitated greater efficiency. Another factor that greatly influenced capitalism was the geographical set up. North Western Europe has vast coalmines. When North America became the largest importer of coal then Europe started specializing in the production of energy rather than agriculture. An influenced of trade and commerce came at hand, which in turn gave phenomenal increase to entrepreneurship in Europe. Individual enterprise, easy availability of credit and huge profits were the motivations for the people of Europe. The capitalists in Europe emerged from monasteries as these religious places amassed wealth. Materialistic tendencies gave rise to individualist approach towards trade practices. This need to increase wealth gave rise to capitalism that fueled one of the most important revolutions of the modern world i.e. The Industrial
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Death, Life and Emily Dickinson - Annotated Bibliography Example While it was something that is feared, Dickinson made it seem appealing. Baker makes it known that the carriage ride taken by the protagonist, the one from the living world to the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s final resting place, is a comfortable ride since it is done in a carriage rather than in a hearse. Emily DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s poems are kept together in this anthology. Originally a three-volume set, this book contains all of the poems ever written by Dickinson. Unlike Dickinson and VendlerÃ¢â¬â¢s book, which contains commentaries and insights on the poems that were made by Vendler, this book by Dickinson only contains the poems themselves, allowing the reader to comprehend each poem, find their own insights, and come to their own conclusions. This book was a vital source to the research paper as it offered easy access to the poems that were to be analyzed in my paper. Ã¢â¬Å"I Felt a Funeral in My Brain (97)Ã¢â¬ was the poem taken from this book; while it is one of DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s more famous poems, it was difficult to find in any other source besides the Internet. I was able to use the source to locate this poem and implement it into my essay about life and death themes in DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s works. Helen Vendler comments on selected poems of Emily Dickinson, the poems of whom are also included in this book. Vendler has made a career for herself by critically reading and analyzing the poems of many writers, including Dickinson, paying special attention to the style and imaginative elements of each poem. Vendler selected the poems that she did based on how they related to DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s life, focusing a great amount on what inspired the poet to write what she did. Unlike DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s anthology of poems, this book provides insight into the selected poems, pointing out facts and characteristics that readers should be aware of. Dickinson and VendlerÃ¢â¬â¢s book was useful in two ways for my research paper. The first was to provide me with a copy of
Monday, August 26, 2019
Philadelphia (1993) - Research Paper Example Far right views also view the AIDS pandemic as a God sent weapon to destroy the homosexual population. According Friedman-Kien AE (1981), the views of the religious right on matters of HIV can be termed as Ã¢â¬Å"Dissident scienceÃ¢â¬ . This term comes from the fact that the theories put forward by the religious right have no scientific backing. It is unfortunate that for a long time the views of the religious right heavily impacted on policy discourses of the disease. This paper explores the responses AIDS activist media reacted to the dissident science on HIV/AIDS as constructed by the religious right. In particular, the paper explores the homosexual dimension of the HIV/AIDS debate as espoused by the Movie Philadelphia (1993). The causation debate Scientifically, it is known that HIV/AIDs is caused by the transfer of body fluids containing the viruses from one person to anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s bloodstream. The primary method of transmission of the disease is sexual intercourse. Male to male intercourse is not a HIV risk by itself. Instead, two other conditions must be met for transmission to occur. These conditions are: one of the partners has to be infected with the virus, and intercourse must result in introduction of the HIV virus into the blood stream of the uninfected partner (Duesberg, 1989). In the United States most transmissions occur between gay men. While globally most transmission occur in between heterosexual sexual partners. Since, the 1980 and 1990 the trend of higher infections in homosexual population has continued in the United States (Duesberg, 1989). It is worth noting that when the disease was first diagnosed in the United States it was recorded among Homosexual populations. This gave rise to strongly held prejudice among religious right activists that HIV/AIDS is a disease for Gay people (Marcus, 2002). The religious activist made it appear like the disease was caused by Gay men and then spread to the rest of the heterosexual population. Ini tially, HIV/AIDS was referred by names that closely tied with the gay sexual orientation. According to Andriote (1999), early reports of the disease referred to it as the gay plague, gay cancer or the Gay disease. Early researchers referred to it as the Gay-related immune deficiency (GRID). The homosexual community responded to this branding of the disease as homosexual disease by mobilizing demonstration. In 1986, Gay AIDs activists were called to action to deflect an editorial that linked HIV/AIDS with the group. William F. Buckley had published an article in March 1986 asserting Ã¢â¬Å"It is both a fact and the popular perception that AIDS is the special curse of the HomosexualÃ¢â¬ (Andriote, 1999). The article went further to propose the branding of gay men with AIDS at the rear and drug addicts on the arm. The Article led to the formation of the Swift and Terrible Retribution Committee. In concentration camp uniforms the retribution council picketed the headquarters of Buckl eyÃ¢â¬â¢s National Review in Manhattan (Afshar, n.d). The Gay and Lesbian Alliance against defamation started the media activism by organizing demonstration against homophobic and AIDS phobic coverage of HIV issues all over America (Vaid, 1995). Most of the demonstrations targeted the New York Times which was accused of being deliberately biased against
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Internalism - Essay Example These factors can be fundamentally motivating. Internalists from the motivational background have a belief that there exists an internal connection that is necessary to be put into consideration between an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s conviction that something has to be done and the motivation as well to the intended purpose which can be labeled as X (Fischer&Mark 252). This philosophical concept when looked at in an ethical manner, then an individual should have committed to their desires or the goals that they would like to achieve. When taking an example that Peter, a young boy would like to be involved in drug use as used by fellow students in class, Peter has the internal reason to take the drugs as he wants to feel what the rest of the students usually feels when they are taking such like drugs. For an internalÃ¢â¬â¢s, Peter has all the reasons as to why he would like to be involved in drug taking but in an ethical perspective view of the internalist, Peter knows that it is wrong to commit such like crimes and he ought not to be involved in taking drugs like the rest of the students indulging in such(Schaubroeck 26). In the contemporary epistemology, internalism based on justification entails that there should be a justification for any action that is undertaken by any individualÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. A belief should highly be connected to the subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s consciousness. Internalism can be distinguished in two sections. These include internalism based on knowledge and internalism that is based on justification and this should be distinguished well. Based on the judgment on justification, this is the most widely accepted form of internalism and is based on the conscious mind of an individual. Based on knowledge, conditions are distinguishable when established on beliefs and the knowledge that is upheld on a particular state of mind of an individual (Hawthorne 215). It is thus important to note that, internalism is can
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Industrialization and the environment - Annotated Bibliography Example Roome substantiates his argument by giving the example of Japan and France, countries that industrialized later, which realized peak at intensity of energy lower than the ones of United States and United Kingdom, which industrialized earlier. He argues that industrialization paths that were less-energy intensive developed as more ways of industrial, transport and domestic technologies on the world markets became available. Roome maintains that countries that industrialized earlier continued using older technologies, which reduced the efficiency of their economies. He also points out that generalizing developing countries as using less energy and therefore reaching their peaks at lower energy intensities is not right. This is because the energy intensities reached by some developing countries has been very high even to the point exceeding the peaks reached by Japan. Roome suggests that the observations show that wealth and resource use do not have a fixed relationship with the consequ ent impacts on the environment. This book is going to be useful for this research as it helps to argue against the erroneous sentiments that developing countries use less energy and therefore minimal impacts to the environment. Blame made to developed nations that they contribute a lot to environmental degradation through their industries can be refuted from the evidence that some developing countries, for example in the Sub-Saharan Africa use the old technologies earlier used by the now developed nations. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). Industrialization, environment and the millennium development goals in Sub-Saharan Africa: The new frontier in the fight against poverty, Volume 1. New York: United Nations Publications, 2004. Print. UNIDO in this book talks about industry and the environment in the Sub-Saharan Africa. It points out that the
Friday, August 23, 2019
Principles and Contemporary of Mental Health - Essay Example In this area, nurses receive specialized training in psychological therapies that builds on therapeutic alliance in dealing with challenging behavior which leads to administration of psychiatric medicine. In summary, mental health is a psychological state of well being in which one has an achievement of a satisfying amalgamation of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s instinctual motivations tolerable to both oneself and oneÃ¢â¬â¢s social locale; an apposite balance of leisure pursuits, love and work (Wilkin, 2003, p. 139). The Patient: BarkerÃ¢â¬â¢s model In one of his theories, Barker wrote that a mental patient care should encompass a Meta theoretical approach. This is to say that several theories are necessary while dealing with mental patients. The application of this theory helped in taking care of the patients. First, there was demonstration of the nursing knowledge, the grand theory, where there was stating the empirical terms and hypotheses to demonstrate understanding of the theory of nursing. To demonstrate a clear understanding of the situation, I applied the BarkerÃ¢â¬â¢s tidal model, which is philosophical in nature. With this model, I had to understand the fact that I knew little about the experiences of my patient. I took my patient as a mystery to be learnt and explored in developing a nurse-patient relationship and identify the needs. This characteristic of curiosity helps to understand more about the patient (Barker & Barker, 2005, p. 108). Secondly, the key to understanding my patient was taking them in with their resourcefulness in acknowledging the reality of my patientÃ¢â¬â¢s problems as the resources towards proper therapy. Other resources were within their social and interpersonal network, which I had to explore to help in proper therapy. Another important aspect that I had to consider was to understand the personal wishes of the patient. This laid emphasis on the importance of collaboration with the patient. This helped in identification of the needs of the patient. Respect to the needs also helped to ease therapy towards quick recovery. Mental health is more psychological and therapy has to be more collaborative through identification of what the patient deems important. However, this did not mean ignoring professional knowledge about the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s condition, but the wishes of the patient remained at the heart throughout the therapy session. Then there was viewing the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s condition as an opportunity, a natural signal indicating the need for services, my services. It was an opportunity for change and a chance for the patient to take a new opportunity in life. In mental health care, there are goals that professional nurses set to achieve. They are to be the end point of the nursing care process. I had to consider the fact that there are small steps which I needed to take in order to move away from the circumstances that brought my patient to the care setting. Finally, BarkerÃ¢â¬â¢s model in practice helped m e to understand the fact that I had to identify the simplest possible action that helped to bring about the help necessary for the patient to get well from their condition. Basing On Evidence Because I had to administer psychotherapy basing on evidence, I had to employ several techniques that had to base on empirical relationship building, communication, dialogue and behavior change with a designation to improve mental
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Increasing Taxes on Alcohol and Cigarettes Essay Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã¢â¬Å"Sin taxesÃ¢â¬ on cigarettes and alcohol are designed to boost revenue, not improve public health Ã¢â¬ ¢Minimum alcohol pricing will exacerbate poverty and entrench inequality without discouraging binge drinking Ã¢â¬ ¢Most of the costs of drinking and smoking fall on individual consumers, not the public. There is no economic justification for increasing taxes on smokers and drinkers. In a report released today, The Wages of Sin Taxes (Download PDF) by Christopher Snowdon, the Adam Smith Institute condemns the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to increase taxes on cigarettes and alcohol this year and to introduce minimum alcohol pricing. The report argues that Ã¢â¬Ësin taxesÃ¢â¬â¢ (taxes on commodities seen as harmful to health) are ineffective in reducing consumption and are not necessary for recouping lost revenue. The taxes are highly regressive and force the poor to pay for the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s mishandling of public finances. The taxes donÃ¢â¬â¢t work Cigarette taxes are now so high that increases drive smokers to the black market instead of discouraging consumption or raising more revenue. Sin taxes are more likely to deter moderate users than heavy users, whose demand for cigarettes and alcohol is relatively inelastic. A heavy smoker or an alcoholic is unlikely to reduce consumption because of a price rise, making sin taxes an unreliable way of reducing consumption or improving public health. The victims of cigarette and alcohol duty Sin taxes hit moderate and heavy users alike. Research has shown that previous rises in cigarette tax have made only 2.3% of smokers quit, with the other 97.7% just paying more in tax. Taxes on cigarettes and alcohol are regressive and hit the poor hardest. The average smoker spends Ã £1660 a year on cigarettes Ã¢â¬â 20% of the bottom 10%Ã¢â¬â¢s income. Sin taxes are the most regressive indirect taxes, as they tend to target products that are disproportionately consumed by the poor. Minimum alcohol pricing is also deeply regressive, only affecting the cheaper drinks consumed by the poor. Punishing poor people for enjoying a drink or a cigarette exacerbates poverty and treats the poor like children who need to be controlled by the state. The public cost of smoking and drinking Taxes on cigarettes and alcohol have often been justified by studies that claim to estimate the Ã¢â¬Å"social costÃ¢â¬ of these vices. These studies include intangible costs borne by individual consumers, such as Ã¢â¬Å"emotional distressÃ¢â¬ , lost years of life, and individual expenditures on cigarettes and alcohol. These are personal costs, not social costs. They also fail to include the economic benefits the alcohol and cigarette industry gives to the UK in terms of employment and government revenue. Most of these studies should be relegated to the bin of junk statistics. In fact, smokers and heavy drinkers do not cost the state more. Though smokers may cost more during their working lives, but non-smokers require greater expenditure in pensions, nursing care and welfare payments. Chronic diseases associated with old age are far more expensive than the lethal diseases associated with smoking and alcoholism. Smokers and drinkers are not a burden on the state, and the myth of saints subsidising sinners should not be used to justify tax rises. The appeal of Ã¢â¬Ësin taxesÃ¢â¬â¢ Despite the fact they hurt the poor and do not change consumer consumption, sin taxes have always been popular with governments as a source of revenue. Sin taxes and minimum alcohol pricing should be recognised for what they really are stealth taxes and paternalism designed to control the poor. Chris Snowdon, author of the report and Adam Smith Institute fellow, says: Ã¢â¬Å"Campaigners for sin taxes and minimum pricing often claim that Ã¢â¬Å"healthy citizensÃ¢â¬ are forced to bear the cost of other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyles. In fact, the evidence shows that smokers take less from the communal pot than the average Briton and the money raised from alcohol duty comfortably pays for any burden drinking places on public services. If the aim of policy is to make individuals pay their way, the government should slash the beer tax and subsidise cigarettes. We are not seriously suggesting the government does this, but if politicians insist on increasing taxes on these products, they sh ould admit that the purpose is to raise revenue. Essentially the government is forcing the people who are least likely to live to extreme old age to pay for the escalating costs of an ageing population.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Studying the Bible in context Essay 1, a. In helping readers to understand the various meanings of passages in the scripture, and for purposes of categorizing the bible literature in various narratives, the bible authors have develop various techniques which include the use of exegesis, which is essentially a systematic process that is used by an author in order to arrive at a coherent and reasonable meaning of a certain passage in the bible. This technique helps a reader to know the historic setting and the original meaning that the passage gave to the original recipients of the message. The rhetorical and progression devices have also been applied. In a rhetoric device, the author puts a lot of emphasis on a point that a leader is intended to grasp, while the progression device creates a story by developing events from the background to the climax of the story. All these are meant to helps readers to understand the context clearly. The paradox technique has been applied where two contradictory statements are used for instance, when Jesus stated that whoever wants to save their life must lose it. These and many other techniques have been applied to help understand and categorize bible literature as well as making the bile interesting to read. In the interpretation of bible narratives, it is important to be cautious by ensuring that an alert and careful reading of the text is done to avoid misinterpretation. A reader is supposed to visualize the whole story, and look for the literal meaning of words in order to attain the correct meaning. 1, b. Genesis chapter 17 talks about the appearance of God to Abraham when he was 99 years old. It was at this time when God renewed his covenant with Abraham and made renewed his promises to him including the promise of a son and that Abraham would become a father of a great nation. God also that, Abraham and all his descendants must be circumcised. From a theological perspective, (2006) stated that, the appearance of God this time was in the person of Christ Jesus. Where God told Abraham that he was Ã¢â¬Å"the Almighty,Ã¢â¬ this was meant to portray the real character and nature of God, by the use of the name Elshadai. Various scholars have however given different meanings to the name Shadily including an all-sufficient God, abundantly, one who pours out blessings, one who is rich among other meanings. By God asking that Abraham appear before him blameless, it shows how God would want the people to appear before him wholly and with total commitment. God appeared to reaffirm the covenant he had made with Abraham close to 25 years ago, and proved that he was faithful to whatever promises he makes to the human nature. God made a change of names for both Abraham and Sara as a way of encouraging their faith and to show that he would indeed make a father and a mother of a great nation. Abraham was in turn supposed to get circumcised and to circumcise all his descendants, this portrays the need for Christians to make sacrifices and to keep holy if they are to realize the promises of God. 1, c. Theologians have argued that, just like other historical books, the book of Acts is predominantly descriptive other than normative. The argument is that most of the events that have been explained in the book of Acts may not necessarily take place today and that some of the things which happened to people during the time of writing the book of Act, may not happen today. Acts 5 explains the story of Sapphira and Ananias and how they were struck down to death because of lying to God, this however does not mean that if Christian lie to God today the same punishment will be applicable to them. If Acts would be viewed as normative, does it mean that Christians should take the example of Acts 8: 16? which stated that leaders were then elected by way of ballots, the statement is therefore better viewed in the descriptive manner other than in the normative form. Acts 28: 36 talks about the early Pentecostals who were snake handlers, if Christians were to view this statement as normative, it would therefore mean that such snake handling actions are justified. Theologians have approached the book of Acts from the literal meaning, they have interpreted word to word, and passage to passage, and have then applied the teachings to the modern time in order to determine whether the book should be viewed as normative or descriptive. The literal approach is good as it helps leaders to first understand the meaning of a passage in the scripture and then look at the applicability of the context in the present time. 2, a. Theologians have stated that, the gospels are to be accepted as the reliable historical source that explains about the birth and life of Jesus Christ. The gospels consist of four books in the new testament which are Luke, Matthew, John and Mark. The gospels are also referred to as the good news books, they talk about the birth and life of Jesus. The scholars of the new testament have agreed that, the gospels cannot be said to be biographies, because they are not presented in a way that a biography is set in the modern time, theologians have also stated that, the gospels only focus a little on any issues that are of significance to the theological studies. It is therefore proper to take the gospels as history. 2, b. Parables are interpreted as the allegories. Theologians have stated that, there is need to search into the hidden meaning that is to be found behind the words in a certain parable, so that a person may be able to get the right meaning of the passage and the intended teaching of the parable. This technique of interpretation has been referred to as the hardening theory. The first principle in the interpretation of parables states that, the parables should be looked at by the setting of the good example shown from Jesus life. This sets the point of view from which parables should be approached. Another principle states that, parables should be approached from the scenery point of view, where the interpretation should not be done on word to word or from line to line, but rather by looking at the whole story after which a reader can then be in a position to derive the hidden meaning. 2, c. Luke 16: 19-31 is a bible parable which tells the story of the rich man and Lazarus. The rich man lived in luxury while on earth while at the same time Lazarus lived in poverty and much suffering. When the two died Lazarus went to heaven where he rested in the chest of Abraham, while the rich man was tormented in hell. The rich man cried for help but could not be assisted because his time of repentance had gone. This parable explains what happened during that time, and closely relates the story to the events in the present day. In the interpretation of the parable, the rich Christians are supposed to take care of their poor brothers. When the rich man requested that Lazarus be sent on earth to warn his brothers, Abraham stated that, those who could not listen to Moses and Isaac would never listen to Lazarus if he was to come today to give a warning. This relates to the Christians who hear the word of God but do not pay any keen attention to it. The parable has therefore set the biblical teaching on the way of life which should be adopted by Christians. 3, a. The bible scholars have argued that, the moral standards of God did not change even after he gave the law to Moses. The Mosaic law is clearly studied as it states the laws that were given to the Israelites and the standards which God set for the Israelites to observe. The Mosaic law was delivered to the Israelites through Moses. The new covenant that was given to Abraham did not negate the moral standards that had been set earlier in the Mosaic law (Galatians 3:18-21). The only difference is that, in the mosaic covenant, the faithfulness of both parties was required where man was to be faithful to God and would in turn receive receive the promises of God, this is called a bilateral covenant, the Abraham covenant has only God who has promised to be faithful in fulfilling his promises, and is therefore called a unilateral covenant. The new covenant had Paul, James and Jesus emphasizing that Christians should keep and observe the whole law. Christians have therefore been urged to observe the Abraham law that has similar moral standards set by God in the Mosaic law. 3, b. Exodus 22:18, expresses how a witch and a sorcerer is viewed in the kingdom of God. The witch and the sorcerers may be representing all the evil people in the community who are not valued in the eye of God and in the Christian community, as their ambition is to confuse the faithful and to cause problems in the society. The meaning of exodus is not that the faithful should kill the witch and the sorcerer, but rather, they should pray for them and help them to repent and change their ways. 4, a. The epistles are the letters that were written to various individuals in the early church and their authorship is acknowledged to Paul. The epistles begin by mentioning the name Paul in their first wording. The epistles are to be read historically in that, they give a lot of descriptive details about the way the early church lived and how the church was conducted. On the bigger part, the epistles mostly have the theological studies, where the letters that were written to the various churches and to the various individuals addressed specific situations such as, a social wrong that needed people to correct or a poor interpretation of the scripture that needed to be corrected. The letters would also be written where there was a misunderstanding in the early church that needed to be resolved. The epistles contain a lot of theology that require proper interpretation, but at the same time of of the interpretations goes back to the historical settings in the church. 4,b. Collosians 1:13 can be interpretation from the historical sense in that, it takes about it talks a bout a historical past where human beings were living in the darkness, this period can be explained by looking at how it looked like, before human beings got to the grace period when Jesus Christ brought salvation. From the theological point, the verse calls for a lot of theological interpretation where the statement addresses the way in which Christians should live in the life of Christ Jesus. 4, c. Romans 14 together with 1 Corinthians 8, talks about the issue of Christian faith. Paul expressed to the Christians that, they had the liberty to eat anything including the food that was offered to the idols. In stating this, Paul explained that there was only one God and therefore, a Christian who examines their heart and felt it right to eat such food did not commit any sins. Drinking of wine is also not prohibited in the teaching of Paul and he even stated that a little wine for the stomach was good. Christians should always inquire into their conscience and mind to determine whether their faith allows them to do certain action. However, where an act done by a strong believer may ,mislead a weaker believer, it is good for the strong believer to avoid the action.
Hindustan Computers Limited Hcl Commerce Essay HCL Technologies is one of the seven companies in the Bloomberg database of 3,000 technology companies with a market capitalization of more than $5 billion, revenue of more than $2.5 billion and a compounded annual growth rate more than 25 per cent during the past five years (HCL Technologies Limited, 2012). Definition of Success at HCL means providing the best possible solutions to their clients with optimum level of satisfaction. HCL Technologies is the Number 1 employer in India. 1.1 History Hindustan Computers Limited (HCL), one of Indias original IT firms started in 1976 currently deals in various segments like Remote Infrastructure Management, BPO services, IT Hardware, Systems Integration and Distribution of Technology and Telecom products RD and Technology Services and Enterprise and Applications Consulting is Indias original IT firm. Started 35 years ago, the enterprise now stands with an enormous workforce of 90,000 employees. it spreads across 31 countries across the globe and has 505 foothills in India. A global name and numerous partnerships with many Fortune 1000 firms are a few feathers in the HCLs success story (HCL, 2012). 1.2 Ownership Fast Facts HCL Technologies Company Name HCL Technologies Ltd. Company Type Global IT Company Service Areas Software, Infrastructure and BPO Date of Establishment November 12, 1991 Chairman and Chief Strategy Officer Shiv Nadar Vice Chairman CEO Vineet Nayar Employee Strength 85,335 on 30thÃ September 2012. Offices Offices in 31 countries Geographies USA, Europe, Asia Pacific and Japan Consolidated Revenues US$ 4.3 billion (Rs. 22,417 crores), as on 30thÃ September 2012 1.3 Businesses HCL is a leading global Technology and IT Enterprise with annual revenues of US$ 6.2 billion. The HCL Enterprise comprises two companies listed in India, HCL Technologies and HCL Infosystems. HCL Snapshot 1.4 Location HCL Technologies as a $4.3 billion global company brings IT and engineering services expertise under one umbrella to solve complex business problems for its clients. It leverages its global offshore infrastructure and network of offices in 31 countries. HCL provide multi-service, holistic delivery in industries such as financial services, consumer services, manufacturing, healthcare and public services. Organizational Structure The Indian conventional way of working leads to a vertical hierarchical structure, which is with founder as the head and certain subordinates below him. Being a technical expertise company, the hierarchy depends on the level of knowledge gained by the professionals. Due to no inter department interfering, the transfer of knowledge is more on vertical basis but very rarely horizontal. Vision To be the technology partner of choice for forward looking customers by collaboratively transforming technology into business advantage.(HCL, 2012) Mission We will be the employer of choice and the partner of choice by focusing on our stated values of Employees First, Trust, Transparency, Flexibility and Value Centricity. (HCL, 2012) Leadership style, approaches etc HCLs leadership style follows the rule of free-rein rather than the contemporary participative method. It is clearly noticeable from the recent development of a defined approach of Employees First Customers Seconds (EFCS). Now days the leaders give full authority to their employees to make decisions but at the same time, take the responsibility of the same. It helps the company to build future leaders who would be better decision makers and also motivation to the employees for analysing situations better and working with respect to them. Delegating tasks is an important tool which should be followed and practiced in corporate and fortunately is followed in the HCL. It helps build confidence and trust among co-workers aiding a pleasant and healthy work environment. This is kind of leadership style is also known as laissez faire, which is the non-interference in the affairs of others (Clark, 2010). Expertise of employees is the key to HCLs success. HCL firmly believes that a firms employees makes the company reach pinnacle heights. Highly qualified and well trained employees are a part of the HCL clan. When knowledge comes into picture, expert power is the power used by employees. Its the knowledge that makes a person stand out in the crowd of all employees. Expert Power is a very common phenomenon in knowledge based industries(Tannenbaum and Schmidt, 1973). Culture unique language, culture, rituals etc. A place where people can think and imagine endless possibilities is the best way to describe HCL. Freedom of thought is very important to extract the additional creativity at work. With a bright history of 35 years, HCL has stood by its core values and philosophy of creating innovations and inventions. HCL has a very rigid demarcation of working in their own department, which implies that employees are not allowed to work in other department other than their own which gradually spoils the inter-departmental relationships. In case of absenteeism too, workers are not allowed to switch department to avoid gaps in enhancing productivity. http://d15mj6e6qmt1na.cloudfront.net/files/images/0053/9998/employees.jpg Rigid policies, tapered span of control and high degree of centralization and formalization are few things associated with HCL. Within departments HCL employees have freedom of processing their thoughts but not inter-departmentally. The organization was bureaucratic structure. However, HCL has initiated a new management approach where the employees of HCL are considered first and then the customers. It is termed as Employees-First Effect which according to Mr. Vineet, CEO is the reason for the company being employee centric and employee driven. It is very much like trimming the conventional method upside down. This not only helps in building confidence and motivation among employees but also transparent work environment. 4.1 Group Dynamics/Team Building initiatives Since there is a lack of inter departmental transfer of knowledge, coordination is at stake at HCL. It followed an Indian conventional method of getting approval from the top management and then would the task be carried forward. After the new management approach of employees first and customers second, the company has started giving more liberty to the employees in terms of taking decisions which makes them feel a part of the organization. It enhances their rationale thinking enabling them to give their 100%. Change management initiatives Change is an inevitable process in management. Just like aging of an individual cannot be hampered in any manner, in the same manner change in management is the need of the day. A company cannot work in the same manner as it was working 10-15years ago. This change came to HCL in 2005 when the sales were low in that period. HCLl alarmed itself before the nick of the time and changed its models and strategies to work according to the customer needs. This is what saved them from the 2009 recession.HCL is one of the very few companies who showed growth even in the recession years. Business models and good managements are the keys to the foresight vision of the market. HCL converted itself from a traditional company to a Generation Y genre. (BMC Software, 2010) Innovation / Creativity initiatives Engaging the employees where they feel a part of the firm and making them realise that they are as important as the customers is a new example of managing employees that Mr.VIneet, the CEO has set in for all the global companies. A unique management technique which makes sure that the workforce of 90,000 employees remains satisfied in order to enhance employee satisfaction but also lead to more than 100% productivity. Turning technology into a manifest advantage for the clients is what HCL is best at. Critique on the current internal scenario / internal environment including people practices An agent promised a customer a delivery of a certain product in a specific time period. The dispatch manager was on leave. So his subordinate took the task in his hand and made sure that the delivery is done on time. But to his horror, he received a note stating that he is not liable to do so because of lack of authority. This incident just proves that the management is very rigid and has a narrow control style of working, which poses as a threat to self motivation of employees to excel in their work and be an overall manager. Suggestions and recommendations Communication should not be considered as an event within a container where employees broadcast oral and written messages instead should be deemed as a continuous process of conveying thoughts and interpretations throughout the organization. Individual learning and focus groups should be included in the working of HCL. It not only enhances individual productivity and skill development but also overall wellness of the firm. Gaining insights from vertical structure of hierarchy should be implemented so as to avoid miscommunications and lagging of work. Assuming others are happy is never the solution to a problem. Therefore, it is very important for the firm to start taking feedback from their employees to know how much justice is the firm doing to the employees. Conclusion Three values on which HCLs cornerstone is based are trust, flexibility and Employee Effect First. All three values make the company a desirable company to work for. Trust is created by pushing the trust envelope. Be flexible with respect to employees and situations is what a good company would associate itself with. The unique management approach of employee first and customers second inhibit the company to be an employee centric. Employees being an responsibility of the management and customers being a responsibility of the employees. Therefore, I would like to work in a company where employees are recognised, valued and rewarded for their performance. Bibliography BMC Software (2010) ELO: Articles: HCL Technologies CEO Talks about Building a Culture to Drive IT Productivity, August. Available at: http://www.enterpriseleadership.org/blogs/Articles/2010/08/10/hcl-technologies-ceo-talks-about-building-a-culture-to-drive-it-productivity (Accessed: 15 December 2012). Clark, D. (2010) Leadership Styles. Available at: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadstl.html (Accessed: 16 December 2012). HCL (2011) Employees First, Customers Second | Business Change Management. Available at: http://www.employeesfirstbook.com/ (Accessed: 15 December 2012). HCL (2012) Overview. Available at: http://www.hcl.in/overview.asp (Accessed: 15 December 2012). HCL Technologies Limited (2012) About HCL Technologies | IT Services, Outsourcing Software Development, IT Solutions | HCL Technologies. Available at: http://www.hcltech.com/about-us/about-hcl-technologies (Accessed: 10 December 2012). Tannenbaum, R. and Schmidt, W.H. (1973) How to Choose a leadership Pattern, Harvard Business Review, May-June, pp.162-180 HBR Classic [Online]. Available at: http://www.elcamino.edu/faculty/bcarr/documents/How%20to%20choose%20a%20leadership%20pattern.pdf (Accessesd: 15 December 2012).
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
In the present day, Scandinavian countries are generally viewed as prosperous, progressive, and egalitarian societies. The citizens of these nations are largely urbanized and receive significant social assistance from the welfare state. However, life in 19th century Scandinavia was markedly different. Scandinavian social life in the 1800s was defined by its provincial character, as the majority of inhabitants resided in rural agricultural communities. Society as a whole was heavily stratified: women had very limited social and economic opportunities and poverty was widespread among ScandinaviaÃ¢â¬â¢s common citizens. Thus, life in 19th century Scandinavia was generally difficult, and this fact is revealed in the books and films that chronicle social life during this time period. Though Scandinavian nations are currently considered to be some of the most equitable countries in the world, 19th century Scandinavian societies were characterized by rigid social hierarchies. As Nordstrom depicts in his history of Scandinavia, those who lived during this time period rarely advanced beyond the social and economic positions that they were born into (Nordstrom, 2000: 166). Vilhelm MobergÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Emigrants further illustrates this point through its portrayal of a rural Swedish parish in the mid 1800s. Moberg describes how generation after generation within a single family labored as farmers on the same land. He suggests that this pattern persisted for centuries, only to be disrupted by the mass migrations that took place in the middle of the 19th century (Moberg, 1949: xxvii). The information presented in NordstromÃ¢â¬â¢s book echoes the localized and provincial nature of Scandinavian villages described by Moberg. Before the technolog... ...en and the common laborer. Wealth and privilege were mainly dictated by birth and enjoyed by a select few. The agrarian masses, on the other hand, generally endured poverty and extreme hardship. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives were also tremendously difficult, as they had essentially zero social or economic independence from men and minimal opportunities for education. The generally poor quality of life faced by most 19th century Scandinavians inspired many of these citizens to seek a better existence by immigrating to America. Ironically, the countries that were left behind by these suffering immigrants are generally considered to have achieved a far higher quality of life than is experienced by the average American. Considering the hard lives endured by most Scandinavians in the 1800s, the progress that has been made in this region over the past century is truly remarkable.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Isaac Manuel Francisco AlbÃ ©niz was born on May 29, 1860 in CamprodÃ ³n, the Catalan province of Gerona in northeastern Spain. As a child he was exceptionally gifted at the piano and gave his first public performance in Barcelona at the age of four. Two years later his mother took him to Paris where, for nine months, he studied privately with a renowned professor of piano at the Paris Conservatory. An attempt was made to enroll AlbÃ ©niz at the Conservatory, but the boy was denied admission because he was too young. Upon returning to Spain he gave several concerts and published his first composition, Marcha Militar. In 1868 the AlbÃ ©niz family moved to Madrid where Isaac began studying at the Royal Conservatory of Music. The boyÃ¢â¬â¢s astonishing pianistic ability inspired great praise and he was acclaimed as SpainÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest prodigy, often being compared to Mozart. Soon, however, AlbÃ ©niz became restless and impatient with his studies and attempted many times to run away from home. Twice he ran away from home and supported his living by playing piano for the public and, sometimes, a job as a potter at the deck. After returning home and with the companion of his father, AlbÃ ©niz first performed in the New World in the spring of 1875 when he gave a series of concerts in Puerto Rico. From there he traveled to Cuba where, in the fall of 1875, he gave several more concerts before returning to Spain. Upon returning to Spain, the 15 year old AlbÃ ©niz gave concerts in several Spanish cities, including Barcelona, Valencia, and Salamanca. Realizing that his child prodigy days were nearing an end, and that the transition from child prodigy to mature artist is never a simple one, AlbÃ ©niz enrolled at the Leipzig Conservatory where he hoped to gain the measure of credibility that one gets from studying at a world famous institution. While there he studied piano with students of Liszt. Short of money, ill at ease with the German language, and unhappy with the rigorous discipline imposed on him by his teachers, AlbÃ ©niz returned to Spain after spending less than two months in the Saxon city where Bach, Schumann, and Mendelssohn once lived. Later that same year, AlbÃ ©niz obtained a royal stipend to study at the Brussels Conservatory where, in 1879, he won first prize in piano performance. Following this he made a well-publicized tour of Europe.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
A Quantitative and Qualitative Look at Southwest Airlines and British Airways :: Airlines Marketplace Aviation Benchmarking
A Quantitative and Qualitative Look at Southwest Airlines and British Airways In today's competitive marketplace, all firms are seeking ways to improve their overall performance. One such method of improvement, recently adopted by many firms, is benchmarking. Benchmarking is a technique used to evaluate internal business processes. "In this analysis, managers determine the firm's critical processes and outputs, baseline those processes, then compare the performance of each process against a standard outside the industry" (Bounds, Yorks, Adams, & Ranney 1994). To effectively improve a business process to world-class quality, managers must find a firm that is recognized as a global leader, not just the industry standard. Successful benchmarking requires tailor-made solutions, not just blind copying of another organization. Measurement and interpretation of data collected is the key to creating business process solutions. "Benchmarking's real role has to be seen in the context of the organization that is continuously implementing improvement" (Bendell, Boulter, & Goodstadt 1998). Organizations implementing the benchmarking process are continuously looking to improve, and planning improvement. Improvements can be made by looking at the firm both internally and externally. Internal improvements are implemented by analyzing processes and setting targets for performance. However, output performance measures are not able to help management understand why a practice is effective. This understanding is a result of personal interpretation of the process. Organizations must look to other firms for ideas to borrow from global leaders, regardless of the scope of the necessary improvement. Equally important as data collection is the actual implementation of the newly acquired business practice. The most important aspect of benchmarking is to enable companies to employ the best business practices. This fundamental theory cannot be overstated. Global competition is growing due to the technological boom. The expansion of the Internet and digital communication has forced once domestic firms to consider foreign competitors. To remain ahead, companies are realizing they must match or exceed the business practices of the best in the world. "The only way that we can drive our organizations to excellence is to ensure that we keep our eyes on our competitors and world best practice in all aspects of business" (Bendell, Boulter, & Goodstadt 1998). Benchmarking should not be considered simply a tool of management, but rather an integral part of the business strategy of a firm. When implementing benchmarking, management must consider the overall issues of performance and process re-engineering. A Quantitative and Qualitative Look at Southwest Airlines and British Airways :: Airlines Marketplace Aviation Benchmarking A Quantitative and Qualitative Look at Southwest Airlines and British Airways In today's competitive marketplace, all firms are seeking ways to improve their overall performance. One such method of improvement, recently adopted by many firms, is benchmarking. Benchmarking is a technique used to evaluate internal business processes. "In this analysis, managers determine the firm's critical processes and outputs, baseline those processes, then compare the performance of each process against a standard outside the industry" (Bounds, Yorks, Adams, & Ranney 1994). To effectively improve a business process to world-class quality, managers must find a firm that is recognized as a global leader, not just the industry standard. Successful benchmarking requires tailor-made solutions, not just blind copying of another organization. Measurement and interpretation of data collected is the key to creating business process solutions. "Benchmarking's real role has to be seen in the context of the organization that is continuously implementing improvement" (Bendell, Boulter, & Goodstadt 1998). Organizations implementing the benchmarking process are continuously looking to improve, and planning improvement. Improvements can be made by looking at the firm both internally and externally. Internal improvements are implemented by analyzing processes and setting targets for performance. However, output performance measures are not able to help management understand why a practice is effective. This understanding is a result of personal interpretation of the process. Organizations must look to other firms for ideas to borrow from global leaders, regardless of the scope of the necessary improvement. Equally important as data collection is the actual implementation of the newly acquired business practice. The most important aspect of benchmarking is to enable companies to employ the best business practices. This fundamental theory cannot be overstated. Global competition is growing due to the technological boom. The expansion of the Internet and digital communication has forced once domestic firms to consider foreign competitors. To remain ahead, companies are realizing they must match or exceed the business practices of the best in the world. "The only way that we can drive our organizations to excellence is to ensure that we keep our eyes on our competitors and world best practice in all aspects of business" (Bendell, Boulter, & Goodstadt 1998). Benchmarking should not be considered simply a tool of management, but rather an integral part of the business strategy of a firm. When implementing benchmarking, management must consider the overall issues of performance and process re-engineering.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The centerpiece of my college education was that it offered me a chance to read extensively, develop writing skills and learn to think logically, coherently and analytically. I developed and nurtured these skills inadvertently by participating in class discussions, group work and research papers. These tools have subsequently been useful in my personal and work experiences. The breadth and depth of my college curriculum offered me the chance to take classes that cut across a broad spectrum of academic disciplines. The relevance of such a broad educational preparation to management is that it helps widen the horizon of analytical, service and product possibilities. Nevertheless, I was cognizant of the need for me to acquire work experience to help ground my education in a practical framework prior to enrolling in graduate school. My choice of management as the area of career interest was not fortuitous. My relentless participation in extracurricular activities in college and the insights I gained helping my mother in her small business helped galvanize my interest in management training and MBA education. Hence my interest in a finance and brokerage operations work after college. By virtue of my three-year work experience, I have been exposed to several management challenges and opportunities. Perhaps most importantly, the challenges have reinforced my interest to seek modern management solutions. I am intrigued by the manner in which the various facets of management affect each other including finance, operations, human resources, marketing, strategy and information technology. My career plan has been to seek different experiences by virtue of six-month stints in different departments. In this connection, I have had assignments in corporate finance, brokerage and human resources, culminating in my current position in back-office operations and settlement. In the above roles, certain characteristics have been apparent to me as critical success factors. I have learned that the attributes of teamwork, initiative, sense of urgency and leadership are at the core of success in management activities. In graduate business school, I would seek to explore the intricacies of modern business management efforts, challenges and opportunities. Moreover, I intend to learn about the relationships of the various disciplines within management and how their interplay may be optimized to benefit a particular entity.
Friday, August 16, 2019
1. Explain a learning theory observed in the video.Ã In the field trip, experiential learning was applied by the facilitator. In experiential learning, students are immersed in a real environment and exposed in a real situation. Experiential learning is based on constructivist theory whereby the learners play active roles in assimilating knowledge onto their existing mental framework and apply their school learned knowledge to the real world (Henley, 1994). In the video, students work with a professional to investigate and learn about nature at Fermilab. Students used magnifying lenses and their senses to see, smell, hear, and feel the plants that they were holding. Initially, students worked in pairs, share their knowledge and make comparison. Then, they worked in groups and write down what they have observed. Thus, the learners have applied the knowledge and concepts that they have learned in the classroom about living things to a real environment at Fermilab. Through the exchange of knowledge and observations among members of the group, they became active learners and teachers. Experiential learning was formulated by Carl Rogers who claimed that significant learning takes place when the subject matter is relevant to the interest of the learner and when external threats are at a minimum (Dover, 2008; Kearsley, 2008). The teacher must set a positive climate for learning, use learning resources, balance intellectual and emotional component of learning and share feelings and thoughts with the learners (ibid). Learning about nature, the prairie, wetlands and the diversity of life took place in Fermilab, a natural environment. Before students were taken around Fermilab, the facilitator gave them some rules to follow to protect the environment and everyone in the area. Hence, there was a positive climate for learning, the experience was significant to the students and the external threat to learning was kept at a minimum. b. Describe the observed teaching situation in terms of group characteristics, seating arrangement, and any additional criteria necessary to present the setting of the learning environment. The teaching and learning process took place at Fermilab where students observed the plants, animals and wetlands to determine the diversity of life in the environment. Initially, all students sat on the grass and work in pairs in observing the plants. They were also holding their magnifying lenses as they listened to the instructions of the facilitator. Each pair consists of a boy and a girl of the same age and grade level. They interacted with their teammates and discussed what they have observed. Then they worked in groups, reflected on what they have observed and shared what they have learned. There were two boys and two girls in each group. c. Describe the observed teacher-to-student interactions. Students were attentive to their teacher. When the facilitator says, Ã¢â¬Å"I want you to look at the plant, smell the plant, listen to the plant, shake itÃ¢â¬ ¦see if it rattlesÃ¢â¬ , students who were working in pairs got their magnifying lenses to look closely at the plants and follow the instructions of the teacher. Everyone was engaged in the activities. In another scene, a small group of students were listening attentively to a professional as she speaks about the different environments that they will observe and investigate. She also provided some rules that they need to observe to protect the environment and everyone at Fermilab. While the facilitator speaks before the students, there was a female teacher who was standing beside her. d. Describe the observed student-to-student interactions. In the first activity, a buddy system was established whereby students work in pairs while seating on the grass and observing the plants. A boy and a girl were interacting with each other and exchanging knowledge on what they have observed. In another activity, there were four students in each group. They were taking down notes on the plants that they were investigating. As students work in groups, peer teaching was established as groupmates do some discussions and kept their voices low so as not to disrupt the other groups. They were all doing their activities in an orderly manner. Analysis, Exploration, and Reasoning a. Describe the purpose of the observed lesson. The objective of the lesson is to learn about nature and to determine the diversity of life in different environments through active learning and immersion. Through experiential learning, students were able to explore the plants, animals and different environments in Fermilab through the use of their sense of sight, touch, smell, and hearing. The lesson also aimed to provide a hands-on experience on a real or natural environment instead of looking at the pictures, reading about nature and environment and staying in the classroom. The activities gave students the opportunity to work with other students and share their knowledge and observation with other members of the group. The activities also develop the social skills of the students. The activities aimed to foster cooperation as students need to follow rules to protect themselves, other people, nature, animals, and the environment. b. Describe a teaching strategy implemented in the observed lesson. Experiential learning is a strategy used by teachers to incorporate learning theories into lessons. As the students learn about nature and the diversity of life in their field trip, they will be able to construct their own knowledge about the protection of nature from what they have observed and experienced at Fermilab. Through experiential learning, the theory of constructivism can be applied in which learners actively build knowledge and skills, construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current and past knowledge (Bruner, 1990). Students have learned about plants and animal life in the classroom, through their readings or viewing of films or television programs. Now that they have an actual experience of natureÃ¢â¬â¢s life in Fermilab, their knowledge and experience are added to what they have already learned. Hence, they will be able to construct their own ideas on how to protect and care for nature and animals. c. Analyze the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s possible purpose for implementing a teaching strategy observed in the video. The possible purpose of implementing experiential learning is to make each learner directly involved with nature and the diversity of life in different environments at Fermilab. The activities whereby students work by pairs or by groups and learn from one another will foster retention and comprehension of the subject matter because they learn through meaningful learning and teaching experience. The experiential activities make learners directly experience, discover and appreciate nature and environment through the use of their senses. Experiential learning also allows students to reflect on their experience, and generate understanding and transfer of skills and knowledge. d. Describe the level of student engagement with the observed lesson In the video, there was a high level of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ engagement in the activities. This was evident in their participation to all the activities as they work in pairs and in groups in sharing their knowledge and observations on the plants that they were investigating. The students were listening and following the instructions of their teacher. When the teacher says, I want you to look at the plants, smell the plants, etc. , students who were working in pairs, got hold of the plants and observed them closely with their magnifying lenses. They were also attentively listening to the professional who was explaining about the environments and the diversity of life that they will examine within the Fermilab and the rules that they need to follow.
What is a leader? A leader is a person who leads or commands a group, organization, or country. There are many types of leaders. A leader can be a laissez-faire leader that lacks direct supervision and fails to provide regular feedback to those they lead, an autocrat that possesses total authority and take decisions upon their own will without consulting those who are following or even a participative leader who has the responsibility of making the final decision but greatly includes the opinions, ideas and feedback of those they lead. Leaders can also be transactional leaders who receive certain tasks to conduct and give rewards or punishments to those under them based on their performance or transformational leaders who motivate followers and increase productivity using communicative techniques and involvement in the tasks they set. Not only that, a leader also has to have some traits that correspond to their types of leadership. For example, transformational leaders have to be patient with their followers otherwise relationships can break down and the whole idea of efficiency is destroyed. Leaders need to be persuasive as well to motivate and convince their followers to believe in an idea or their ability to do a task which they hesitate to do or think they are unable to. As seen in history and many novels, leaders lead differently than other leaders as ideas, methods and perceptions of perfection differ between them. For example, the ideas and methods used by Queen Elizabeth the First differed from those used by Sampath Chawla from the novel entitled Ã¢â¬ËHullabaloo in the Guava OrchardÃ¢â¬â¢ written by Kiran Desai as well as Mark Antony from the play entitled Ã¢â¬ËThe tragedy of Julius CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢ written by the famous William Shakespeare. The three of them all differed in how they led their followers and using which ideas to do so. Despite differing in many aspects, they all shared some common traits that are the bases of leadership. In Ã¢â¬ËThe Tragedy of Julius CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢, some conspirators had killed the almost roman emperor, Julius Caesar. They did so, giving the false reason that they wanted to rid him of the fear or worry of death. Mark Antony, using persuasive techniques, managed to change the mindsets of the public who believed in the conspiratorsÃ¢â¬â¢ reason into believing that Caesar was a good man and had no bad intentions, which is what the conspiratorsÃ¢â¬â¢ thought. Mark Antony uses persuasive techniques like repetition, false intentions and sophistry. He uses these in his speech at CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s burial to convince the crowd into believing his ideas by first commending Brutus on how honorable he is but then repeating how honorable he is to make the crowd question their faith in Brutus. He also says that he did not arrive to praise Caesar but to bury him which is exactly the opposite of what he wanted to do. Another false intention was that he did not want to disprove Brutus which is exactly what he did by using appropriate facts. Lastly, his speech was sophisticated and so led the crowd to believing that he was superior to Brutus which cemented his gaining the crowdÃ¢â¬â¢s support. In Ã¢â¬ËHullabaloo in the Guava OrchardÃ¢â¬â¢, the main character, Sampath, is a leader later on in the novel after losing his job at the post office where he reads every letter that passes him. He becomes a sort of spiritual leader as he passes on some of the knowledge, both useful and downright senseless, to those who believe he is one. He manages to convince the people who come to him for advice, as he seemingly has an answer that seems meaningful and wise, using persuasive techniques that include loaded language and glittering generalities. An example of the responses he gives to people is when someone asked him if anyone could comprehend all there is to know about god to which Sampath replied Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ë Once you have broken the bottle you can no longer distinguish the air inside from the air outsideÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ This represents the colorful and loaded language Sampath represents as well as his ability to confuse and manipulate people into thinking meaningless sentences like these have greater meaning and that is the reason they cannot understand. He is also a leader because he represents a symbol of knowledge and religious importance and this gives people something to look forward to, believe in and rely upon. Queen Elizabeth the First was a leader as well when she ruled over England in 1588. She was brave, intelligent, caring and because of this, loved by the people. At this time, England was about to go to war with Spain. The units in concern were the naval fleets of both nations that were about to engage in combat. The Spanish fleet, nicknamed the Spanish Armada, were in comparison to the English fleet, bigger, stronger and heavily armored and this caused the soldiers to doubt their own ability to win and caused large bouts of cowardice. Despite this, the English fleet came out victorious. Queen Elizabeth, on the eve of the Spanish Armada, gave a powerful speech that motivated her soldiers and showed her love and respect for the country. She used persuasive techniques like bandwagon appeal to bring out the desire to belong in the soldiers, rewards that gave incentive to the soldiers to fight, win and return, loaded language to appeal to her audience, a tone of self-assurance to show that she knows the position of power she is in and how she is not threatened by anything on the outside and lastly, the most powerful technique she used was to keep using the word Ã¢â¬ËweÃ¢â¬â¢ to show how they are all united and how she was willing to give up everything for the nation. This inspired the confidence needed to win the battle. A leader is a person who leads or commands a group, organization, or country. This is what all three leaders have shown, the ability to lead. They have shown this in their own ways and with their own ideas. They all share this common trait as well as being persuasive and adapting intelligently to fit the situation. That is the basic leadership trait that all successful leaders throughout history have shown and that is all that is needed in order to be a successful leader.