Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Assertiveness is the ability to express your feelings, opinions, beliefs and needs directly

â€Å"Assertiveness is the ability to express your feelings, opinions, beliefs and needs directly, openly and honestly, while not violating the personal rights of others.†(Holland and Ward 1990) Corollary to which, being assertive entails knowing its limit because the right of a person ends where the right of another person begins.   Being assertive is an expression and protection of one’s right up to such an extent where one protects and respects the rights of others.â€Å"There's a kind of integrity that goes along with assertiveness — meaning what you say, when you say it, in the way that you say it.† (Davidson, J. 1997).   Thus, it is ultimately aimed at generation a resolution to problems that is amenable and beneficial to all, essential to maintain fairness and mutuality, which are the basic tenets of any form of human relationships.RightsIn legal parlance, a right is the legal entitlement to do or avoid doing something which is sanctioned by law or the provisions of a contract. However, everyone has rights that are inherently conferred to us by virtue of being humans, which is called human rights. (Gewirth, 1998) Human rights are universal, every person is entitled to it; equal, every person has the same rights; and entail a correlative duty, the bearer of which under international law is the state or the government to which a person had pledged allegiance to.(Clapham, 1993) Perhaps the most basic of these human rights which Immanuel Kant himself declared is freedom –nobody owns one’s life except oneself.   From which the following rights can be derived: the right to decide for oneself in terms of behavior, idea and emotion; the right to change the same, the right to be independent in the conduct of one’s life, to join and not to join, to act or not to act or the right to have a choice.However, in the exercise of these rights, people are prone to commit mistakes.     The right to commit mistakes therefore is in essence part of a person’s right to make decisions and to have choices.   In as much as a person has the right to commit mistakes, he/ she also has the responsibility for the consequences of his/ her choices and decisions.Assertiveness is the balance between two extreme behaviors: passiveness and aggressiveness.   Passiveness or being non assertive is the renunciation of one’s rights which involves turning down one’s opinions, allowing others to decide for one’s own fate, or not exercising one’s right because of guilt or anger.Aggressiveness or being too assertive is the abusive exercise of one’s rights which involves intimidating other people, coercing or manipulating others (lying) thereby not allowing them to decide for themselves or, exercising one’s right to an extent of exploiting other people’s rights.   (Lloyd, 2001)In other words, â€Å"people have a fundamental right as human beings to express t hemselves so long as doing so will not trample on the rights of others.† (Davidson, J. 1997) Such assertion becomes am aggressionBarriers to AssertivenessA big barrier to assertiveness is the over watchfulness or worrisome of people to be misinterpreted as being aggressive and offensive.   It may anger others or hurt their feelings and consequently engender a feeling of hatred, a perception of arrogance or selfishness or even stupidity against the assertive person.These misled conclusions are basically drawn from misconceptions about assertiveness which involved legitimate rights, a sense of concern towards others and a sense of responsibility for the consequences of one’ s decisions. (Paterson and Paterson, 2000)

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Corporate Strategy and Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Countries Such as India Essay

Foreign direct investment (FDI), in its simplest term, is when a company from one country makes an investment into building a facility in another country, or when investments are made in order to acquire a certain stake in enterprises operating outside the economy and country of the investor. FDI plays an extraordinary role for firms wanting to operate and compete in a global business. It can provide a firm with new markets to penetrate, cheaper production facilities, access to new technologies, skills, and financing. For a host country or the foreign firm receiving the investment, it can provide many opportunities that are necessary for economic growth and development. FDI can also come in many different forms, such as direct acquisition of a foreign firm, setting up a facility in a foreign country, or investing in joint ventures and/or strategic alliances with local and foreign firms (Kim & Kim, 2006). In the past decade, due to a dramatic change in the way businesses are conducted, combined with loosening of governments’ regulations on foreign investments, FDI has increased dramatically on a global scale. When companies make decisions regarding FDI, this process require the efficient allocation of funds to investment opportunities, which often require large amounts of money that will hopefully bring greater returns to its investors. With foreign investments being far riskier than domestic investments, the effective and efficient use of funds is critical for the future performance of a multinational company. Multinational companies that engage in FDI provide a range of potential benefits that extend to the actual investors as well as the host country that is receiving the investment which are quite apparent. An example within many of these advantages include, increased profits for the industry or the firm due to lower costs of resources abroad, and increase in jobs provided in the host country. However, despite the positive arguments for FDIs there are still also many reasons how or why these type of investments can prove to be harmful. Domestic firms may consider these investments as unfair competition because the home-market is losing jobs that are instead being set-up abroad. Also, the host country may feel that they are losing their national identity due to foreign cultures and influences being imposed on them. Despite the many benefits that FDIs have provided both companies and host-countries, it is still unsure that such activities will not extend harmful effects to either participant due to the various reasons mentioned above. A reasonable outline for investments should be set-out in order to allow investors reap the benefits of their investments, while simultaneously contributing positively towards the growth and development of the host-country. The following sections of this report will attempt to analyze FDI effects on developing countries, the means available for companies to invest in foreign markets, mergers and acquisitions, and other issues related to the field of foreign direct investment. Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Countries Foreign direct investments initiated by MNCs occur primarily because in most cases these type of activities aim to fulfill all MNC’s primary objective; to maximize shareholder value (stock price) by â€Å"taking-on† various value-adding activities or investments. As such they are considered as being major contributors to economic growth for developing countries. A host country will usually want to attract foreign investors in order to acquire additional resources such as capital, new technologies, knowledge, as well as increased job opportunities for its population. Over the past decade globalization has increased dramatically, which has also sparked increasing flows of FDI in developing countries as governments begin to ease up on their regulations. According to publications from the Institute for International Economics, FDI in developing countries, and countries who are in a transition phase of their economy (i. e. China) grew dramatically during 1990-1998, from $24 billion per annum to approximately $120 billion per annum. Mentioned in the previous section, FDI in theory, as well as in practice, has proved to offer several gains to developing host countries who accept MNC’s investment efforts. From these gains, the major ones that are usually more specific to developing host countries include the transfer of technology that couldn’t otherwise be acquired through investments or trade, development of human capital through employee training, and gains in profits resulting from corporate tax revenues in the host country (Loungani and Razin, 2001). The fact is that the impact of FDI in a certain country may vary from one country to another country, therefore the degree of FDI impact really depends on the government policies and regulations that are set forth in order to either attract or deter FDI inflows. Therefore, we could concur that government policymakers have the most important role when it comes to FDI decisions. They should be aware of the different methods that could be used to promote FDI and how each of these means would affect the development and growth of the local economy. Often, policymakers seem to rush into FDI liberalization policies without considering the pros and cons of such actions. However, as the South East Asian economies have well proven to the rest of the world, if FDI can be used strategically, it can be an extremely useful tool for emerging economies and developing countries. FDI in India India’s recent liberalization of its foreign investment regulations has generated strong interest by foreign investors, turning India into one of the fastest growing destinations for global FDI. Foreign firms are setting up joint ventures in several of India’s fastest growing sectors such as telecommunications, computers software, financial services, tourism, etc. According to a global survey conducted by KPMG International on corporate investment plans in June 2008, India is expected to experience the largest overall growth in its share FDI, and will most likely become a haven for investments within the manufacturing industries. It’s true that India is becoming one of the most favored investment destinations for many developed countries as well as countries whose economies are in a transition phase. The following diagram shows how GDP per capita growth, trade volumes, and FDI inflows have surged over the years 2001-2006. Within the past few years, Japanese firms are increasingly purchasing various amounts of equity ventures in Indian firms, particularly within the automobile, electronics, and IT sectors. FDI is now recognized as one of the most important drivers of economic growth for India, and as such, the Indian government is making all efforts to attract and facilitate FDI and investment from foreign investors. India’s liberalization efforts have not only removed national barriers towards foreign investments, but have also made the process of investment activities much easier by establishing various measures. According to India Business Directory (IBD, 1999-2009), some of these implemented measures include: †¢Loosening of foreign exchange controls in order to promote greater tradebetween India and other countries †¢Companies now have significant amount of freedom to raise funds from foreign markets in order to invest and expand their foreign operations in India †¢Trade between countries is subject to fewer trade restrictions; i. . decreasing tariff levels †¢Foreign investors can pass on earnings from Indian operations with relative ease As India and its industries continue to develop and expand, more and more investors are attracted to its market with hopes of experiencing great returns. The possibilities of foreign investment in India seem endless with the combination of incentives and benefits that the Indian government offers to foreign investors. Some of these incentives include tax exemptions due to the various tax treaties that India has with 40 other countries, as well as investment incentives offered by the Indian government and the state (IBD, 1999-2009). One of the major reasons why India has attracted vast amounts of FDI in recent years is due to its FDI policies. According to the Embassy of India website (2009), FDI up to 100 percent is allowed under the â€Å"automatic route† in all sectors and activities except for those that are otherwise stated. Some of these sectors that don’t permit full ownership by the foreign investor include such items that require special licensing; i. e. alcoholic drinks, cigarettes and tobacco products, electronic aerospace and defense equipment, explosives, and hazardous chemicals. There are also other sectors of the economy that are prohibited from receiving ANY form of FDI, which include atomic energy, railway transport, ammunition and defense equipment, and mineral oils. However, most of the sectors fall under the â€Å"automatic route† for FDI, which basically implies that FDI can take place without the approval of the central government.

The Nature Of Ergonomics Health And Social Care Essay

‘Ergonomics ‘ comes from two Grecian words, ‘ergos ‘ ( work ) and ‘nomos ‘ ( natural Torahs ) . Murrell developed the name in 1949 after working with a squad of physiologists, anatomists and applied scientists at Cambridge University during World War II on the design of arm systems to accommodate worlds ( Murrell 1975 ) . At the terminal of the War, the group stayed together to organize the Ergonomics Research Society, which became the precursor of similar administrations that exist in many states today. In the United States of America, this activity is referred to as Human Factors and several thousand full-time professionals are members of the Human Factors Society. In Australia, the Ergonomics Society of Australia Inc3 is besides a strong association with about 650 professionals working in the countries of biotechnologies, occupational wellness and safety, and design. Biotechnologies is the scientific survey of people, their work and their environment and utilizations informations derived from technology, anatomical, physiological and psychological beginnings ( Standards Association of Australia 1976, p. 6 ) . The Standards Association papers described biotechnologies as â€Å" the design of work so that the best usage is made of human capablenesss without transcending human restrictions † ( Standards Association of Australia 1976, p. 6 ) . This description was supported by Worksafe Australia ( 1989a, p. 44 ) , which stated that biotechnologies: purposes to advance the wellbeing, safety and efficiency of the worker by the survey of his or her capablenesss and restrictions in relation to the work system, machine or undertaking and in relation to the physical, psychological and societal environment in which he or she works. A more elaborate definition describes biotechnologies as: that subdivision of scientific discipline and engineering that includes what is known and theorized about human behavioral and biological features that can be validly applied to the specification, design, rating, operation, and care of merchandises and systems to heighten safe, effectual, and fulfilling usage by persons, groups and organisations ( Christensen et Al. 1988 ) . More late the Ergonomics Society of Australia Inc ( ESA ) ( 2001, p. 2 ) adopted the definition of biotechnologies as approved by the International Ergonomics Association, as follows: Biotechnologies ( or human factors ) is the scientific subject concerned with the apprehension of the interactions among worlds and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, rules, informations and methods to plan in order to optimize human good being and overall system public presentation. This definition placed accent on biotechnologies as a ‘systems-oriented subject ‘ . The ESA noted that â€Å" ergonomists must hold a wide apprehension of the full range of the subject, taking into history the physical, cognitive, societal, organizational, environmental and other relevant factors, and that they may work in peculiar ‘application spheres ‘ , depicting three spheres as: Physical Ergonomics – concerned with human anatomical, anthropometric, physiological and biomechanical features as they relate to physical activity. Cognitive Ergonomics – concerned with mental procedures, such as perceptual experience, memory, concluding and motor response, as they affect interactions among worlds and other elements of a system. Organizational Ergonomics – concerned with the optimization of sociotechnical systems, including their organizational constructions, policies and procedures ( ESA 2001, p. 2 ) . Historically, the development of biotechnologies in Australia was closely associated with occupational wellness and safety due to the high incidence of musculoskeletal hurts in the workplace. Since so, the demand for a holistic attack â€Å" to counter the increasing impact of rapid technological alteration has been emphasized † ( Bullock 1999, p. 36 ) . Biotechnologies is â€Å" an attack † , â€Å" a doctrine † , â€Å" a manner of taking history of people in the manner we design and organize things † ( Wilson 1990, p. 3 ) that may be used to supply an environment in which worlds can bring forth their work in harmoniousness with ‘the machine ‘ to the improvement of work quality and measure and the care or betterment of the physical and behavioural environment. The application of biotechnologies within administrations can ensue in improved working techniques, decreased mistakes and accidents, improved industrial dealingss, and increased efficiency. By diminishing disablement and increasing work satisfaction and productiveness, biotechnologies contributes to a better quality of work life. The doctrine is to â€Å" change the undertaking to accommodate human capacity, instead than force the human to accommodate to an inappropriate undertaking † ( Patkin 1987, pp. 2, 4 ) . Among the cardinal issues related to optimum human interaction with computing machines were the physical layout of the computer science environment, illuming degrees and sound degrees ( Harper 1991, p. 39 ) . In an attempt to continually better the on the job conditions for computing machine users, biotechnologies research workers studied jobs related to equipment, furniture and the workstation environment. However, Patkin ( cited in Moore 1990, p. 45 ) noted that, while holding a suited environment and well-designed furniture and equipment is of import, it is besides of import that people â€Å" cognize how to utilize it right and integrate it into the sum work topographic point system † . The last clause is a major focal point of this thesis.ERGONOMIC RISK FACTORSBiotechnologies hazard factors are the facets of a occupation or undertaking that impose a biochemical emphasis on the worker. Biotechnologies hazard factors are the interactive elements of musculoskeletal disease jeopardies. The undermentioned ergonomic hazard factors are most likely to do or lend to an MSD. aˆ? repeat aˆ? force aˆ? contact emphasiss aˆ? awkward position aˆ? quiver aˆ? cold temperature aˆ? extrinsic emphasis It is of import to understand what a hazard factor is, or instead is non. A hazard factor itself is non needfully a causing agent for any peculiar MSD. Most of the times it is non merely the presence of a hazard factor, but the degree to which the hazard factor is conveyed that may take to MSDs. Similarly, to the extent a MSD instance is due to a hazard factor, sometimes it will be a combination of multiple hazard factors, instead than any individual factor, which contributes to or causes an MSD. It is besides important to observe, in measuring any peculiar instance of a MSD, that hazard factors may be experienced by the affected individual during non-occupational activities. when covering with any ergonomic issue, it would be a mistake to concentrate entirely on the workplace. Furthermore, non every person exposed to any or all of these hazard factors will develop a MSD. Nor, for that affair, will any two individuals who are exposed to the same combination of hazard factors and in the same phase, respond to them in the same manner. However, because these are common factors that may convey approximately to a MSD in some combination and in some persons, these seven hazard agents are discussed in greater item below.Repeats.Repeat rate is determined as the mean figure of motions or efforts executed by a joint or a organic structure nexus within a unit of clip. Repeated indistinguishable or similar gestures performed over a period of clip may do over-extension and overexploitation of some musculus groups, which may take to muscular fatigue. Interestingly, symptoms often associate non to the sinew and musculus groups involved in insistent motions, but to the stabilizing or counter sinew and musculus groups used to put and stabilise the appendage in infinite. Frequently, by altering undertakings, musculus groups have periods of activity interchanged with periods of remainder, which may be good in cut downing the cause of hurt.Force.Force is the mechanical or physical attempt to put to death a specific gesture or effort. Tasks or gestures that require application of higher force topographic point higher mechanical tonss on musculuss, sinews, ligaments and articulations. Tasks affecting high forces may do musculuss to tire more rapidly. High forces may besides take to annoyance, redness, strains and cryings of musculuss, sinews and other tissues. The force required to finish a motion additions when other hazard factors are besides involved. For illustration more physical attempt may be needed to execute undertakings when the velocity or acceleration of gestures additions, when quiver is present, or when the undertaking besides requires awkward positions. Force can be internal, such as when tenseness develops within the musculuss, ligaments and sinews during motion. Force can be external, as when a force is applied to the organic structure, either voluntarily or involuntarily. Forceful motions is most frequently associated with the motion of heavy tonss, such as raising heavy objects on and off a conveyer, presenting heavy bundles, forcing a heavy cart, or traveling a palette. Hand tools that involve pinch clasps require more forceful efforts than those that allow other clasps, such as power clasps.Contact Stresses.Contact emphasis consequences from periodic, repeated or uninterrupted contact between sensitive organic structur e tissue and difficult or crisp object. Contact emphasis normally affects the soft tissue on the fingers, thenars, forearms, shins, thighs and pess. This contact may make force per unit area over a little country of the organic structure ( e.g. carpus, forearm ) that may suppress blood flow, sinew and musculus gesture and nervus map. Examples of contact emphasis include resting carpuss on the crisp border of a desk or workstation when executing undertakings, pressing of tool grips into the thenar, particularly when they can non be put down, undertakings that involve manus pound, and sitting without equal remainder for the articulatio genuss.Awkward PositionPosition is the arrangement of a portion of the organic structure comparative to an next portion as measured by the angle of the joint associating them. Postural emphasis is seting on an extreme position at or shut to the normal scope of gesture. Position is one of the most frequently mentioned occupational hazard factors. There is an inert country of gesture for every jointing articulation in the organic structure. For each joint the scope of gesture is determined by motions that do non affect high muscular force or cause inordinate uncomfortableness. Injury hazards increase whenever work requires an single to put to death undertakings with organic structure sections outside their impersonal scope in a amused position. The upper arm and shoulder zone impersonal position is relaxed with the shoulders down and on the same degree, with weaponries at the side. Operating with the weaponries abducted off from the organic structure, overextended and shoulders stooped puts these articulations at the terminal of their normal scope of gesture, requires more muscular force and greatly increases the hazard for hurt. Labored sitting places, such as leaning sideways, writhing the vertebral column, flexing frontward or slouching Begin in response to compensation for specific work relationships but can go wont over clip. Position and positioning profile factors such as torso turn, tipped shoulders, caput tilt/rotation, raised cubituss ( either dominant, non-dominant, or both ) and runing with custodies near to the face are associated with increased hazard of musculoskeletal symptoms.VibrationVibration is the oscillating gesture of a physical organic structure. Vibration has been found to be an aetiologic factor in work environments utilizing tools vibrating in the frequence set of 20 to 80 hertz. localized quiver, such as quiver of the manus and arm, occurs when a specific portion of the organic structure comes into contact with vibrating objects such as powered manus tools ( e.g. concatenation saw, electric drill, come offing cock ) or equipment ( e.g. wood planing machine, punch imperativeness, boxing machine ) . Whole-body quiver occurs when standing or sitting in vibrating environments ( e.g. driving a truck over rough roads ) or when utilizing heavy vibrating equipment that requires whole organic structure engagement ( e.g. air hammers )Cold Temperature.Cold temperature refer to exposure to excessive cold while executing work undertakings. Cold temperatures can cut down the sleight and sensitiveness of the custodies. Cold temperatur es, for illustration, do the worker to use more clasp force to keep and tools and objects. Besides, prolonged contact with cold surfaces ( e.g. managing cold meat ) can impair sleight and bring on numbness. Cold is a job when it is present with other hazard factors and is particularly debatable when it is present with quiver exposure. Of these hazard factors, force ( i.e. forceful efforts ) , repeat and awkward positions, particularly when happening at high degrees or in combination, are most frequently associated with the happening of MSDs. Exposure to one ergonomic factor may be adequate to do or lend to a covered MSD. However, most frequently ergonomic hazard factors act in combination to make a jeopardy. Jobs that have a multiple hazard factor have a greater likeliness of doing an MSD, depending on the continuance, frequence and/or magnitude of exposure to each. Therefore, it is of import that ergonomic hazard factors be considered in visible radiation of their combined consequence in doing or lending to an MSD.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Business Proposal Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Business Proposal - Coursework Example For this reason, there is always the need for a business to derive strategies by which it can rely on to adapt to the external environment. The factors in the external business environment play a big role in determining the operations of the internal functions. This is because; the business is expected to keep continually realigning its internal operations in order to remain relevant and effective. The external business environment is very dynamic; every day, new economic conditions always arise, legislations, competition strategies among other factors. This paper discusses the economic factors that affect the business in various ways; it focus on mobile phones, as the product that is traded most in many places for economic and social reasons. In addition, it examines the pricing approaches that are used in an imperfect market structure and the factors guiding the pricing in relation to demand patterns The economic factors in the business external business are hard to predict, for instance, the global recession has affected many businesses, making them look for various cost-saving and waste reduction approaches. While some businesses focus on ways to reduce their expenses and increase their, efficiencies, there are those that resolve to outsource functions in order to cut down on their costs. Businesses that effectively manage their external environment effectively end up becoming market leaders, with increased rates of turnover and profitability. There are different types of market structures that exist in an economy, these structures are determined by the types of products being sold, the number of buyers and sellers and their knowledge of the market among other factors. Monopolistic market structures are those characterized by a high competition between many large firms and individuals (Maurya 2008). This market structure is almost similar to a perfect competition only that here; there

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Meal Pill Product Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Meal Pill Product - Research Paper Example The product is differentiated from other similar product types by the â€Å"completeness† of its nutrient components. Food supplements that are available in the market can only provide the necessary vitamins and minerals but are unable to incorporate calories, proteins and fibers due to technological limitation. The issues encountered by other food supplement companies are its inability to compress calories, proteins and fiber in pill form that is enough to sustain a body for a day. While attempts were made, they are still unable to perfect the technology as the end product tends to become bulky. The equivalent of our product in the market would be a combination of several food supplements and food drinks. The closest to our product is Ensure (Ensure, 2011), a nutrition milk, but it lacks the necessary fiber for the body to function. It has to be complemented with Metamucil (Metamucil, 2011) to supply the body of its fiber needs. For added energy, customers also need to take Clif Bar (Clifbar, 2011). This combination however no longer qualifies the competition to be a complete meal. Our product, Meal Pill, can do what all these three products can do, making it a complete meal. In addition, there is an inconvenience with the products offered by the competition. Ensure needs to be prepared by mixing it with water not to mention that it has an unpalatable taste while our product needs no preparation and has a neutral taste just like all pills.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Organizations & Behaviour Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Organizations & Behaviour - Assignment Example This is mainly the case when the leadership situation in the organization is competitive in nature. Servant leadership is mostly applicable in an organization that believes in values, which is a factor that was not culturally applicable to Fancy footwear. The three most valuable motivation theories for managing different groups within an organization is inclusive of Herzberg’s theory on money as a de-motivator, the four personal styles and the theory of motivation that involves three basic needs. The basic needs in this case are affiliation, achievement and power. The theories of motivation are based on the concept of intrinsic motivation, which is stronger than extrinsic motivation. A vital thing to consider is the fact that the manager in an organization cannot be able to motivate the employees, but can be able to create an environment that enables them to motivate themselves. Consequently, the application of the three motivation theories focuses on the creation of strong working relationships through the development of vibrant working environments. Managers in an organization should be willing to exert efforts towards the achievement of the organizational goals, whose conditioning takes into consideration the ability to satisfy the needs of individuals in the organization. Motivation involves getting someone to do something that he or she wants to do (Salas, 2013, 18). Motivation is a vital task for managers since it compromises their ability to encourage, delegate, communicate, train, brief, challenge, and provide rewards to the other people. The normative view of group dynamics gives a description of how to perform activities as well as organize the group. The second consideration of group dynamics involves a set of techniques that includes sensitivity training, role-play, group dynamics transactional analysis and team building among other considerations. The other view of group

Friday, July 26, 2019

Product launch Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Product launch - Essay Example Research on the market of this product had been underway for years and it was proven that the people of Canada were more than willing to install this radiant heating process in their homes so this will be a huge success due to the availability of a ready market. Twenty slides and video presentations were made to inform the prospective customers on how to use and install and maintain this system. The product manager also ensured of teamwork within the different departments of the company providing this service. This has contributed to the great success of this product in the market. With several trials of this product in the market, it was evaluated and the best model developed. The competition from competitors is low as the Can-A-Floor has been embraced by the people due to the massive campaigns and advertisement. The prices are also customer friendly making it affordable to almost if not all citizens. Highly trained sales and support people have been deployed into the market for customer assistance. The installation personnel is also highly skilled ensuring that customer satisfaction is achieved. It is a high time that people kicked cold floors out of their lives by using

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Reading response 9 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Reading response 9 - Essay Example From my personal experience, Arabic students who are learning English manifest a form of interlanguage. I observed that students are having problems in learning English because of the variations of Arabic, where they have Standard and Colloquial varieties and regional dialects affecting their learning of TL phonology through NL phonology. TL phonology problems come from syntax and grammar differences between NL and TL, which impact how L2 learners read the TL. The more that the students relied on a specific or multiple Arabic dialects to translate TL, the more difficult it seems for them to understand TL. However, some students showed interlanguage in how they bridged NL and TL phonology without depending on NL or TL phonology. I noticed how interlanguage may be allowing these students of creating a new mental system that goes outside NL and TL language structures. A universal language mental system can help explain how SLA happens when phonological variations are strong enough and c ertain sounds and syllables present in TL are not practiced in NL. Perhaps this is the way of the human brain of optimizing phonological domains through interlanguage strategies. It would be interesting to gather empirical evidence to back up the use of interlanguage strategies. In Chapter 20, second language speech production’s importance in developing particular SLA skills is discussed through related language theories. Accented TL is an ongoing center of SLA study, especially as age and other social and biological factors affect it. I am interested in focusing on the validity of the Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) to Arabic L2 learners. Though there are variations to age ranges, CPH basically argues that there is an age limit (from five to fifteen years old) in which students learn the native accent of TL. Some aspects of CPH are true, depending on different internal and external factors. In my teaching

Theory and Explanation in International Relations (Honours Component) Essay

Theory and Explanation in International Relations (Honours Component) - Essay Example Smith believes that the distinction between explanatory and constitutive theories is basic ontological difference that emerges out of the differing ways in which IR theorists see the social world. (p27) If one examines what this argument is saying, one could very well use the science/antiscience scheme wherein scholars are divided in the way they see the social world with one favoring the concept of a natural social world – something that is outside of our theories; while the other, stressing that such world is what we actually make it. Explanatory theorists explain the end of the Cold War in the context of the chain of events that that have transpired over time. Types of this theory such the positivists and the realists offer additional details to the fundamental position on the subject which include the attempt to locate the causal roles that are played by particular elements in the chosen object domain for future use or to predict future events and trends. What this means is that explanatory theory is all about making sense of what is given, based on the facts and about attempting to understand their modes of operation. (Cox 1981) A number of authors use this dimension to the theory to explain how they seem to solve problems. The idea is that explanatory theories are concerned with making the world work better â€Å"within clearly defined, and limited parameters.† (Dunne, Kurki & Smith 2007, p26) Otherwise, Morgenthau (1978) maintained that when theories are divorced from facts they became informed by pre judice and mere wishful thinking. (p4-29) On the other hand, constitutive theories follow an entirely different track in theorizing about the end of the Cold War. It does not dwell on the causal theories or the questions that ask the whys and hows. Instead, it is concerned with the â€Å"properties of things by reference to the structures in virtue of which they exist.† (Wendt 1998, p105) Because of this, theories that

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

No topic Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

No topic - Assignment Example Finally, the overarching application of philosophy in current times were asserted in terms of updating previously archaic topics and issues to make them relevant and useful. These topics include a discussion on three identified areas: medicine, environment, and feminism (Hildebrand). One found the intention to provide a definition of God as interesting; yet still wanting. The definitions that were presented were still very much abstract and readers from a wide range of demographical and cultural background could find it challenging to grasp the concepts being asserted. It was, likewise, commendable to try and explain the different constructs of religion as containing three common elements: a content; a method; and a divine guarantee (Hildebrand). Some ideas which were unique included establishing a link between religion and democracy; as well as affirming that religion no longer plays a significant credible appeal in Western society’s existence (Hildebrand). It could be asserted that the notion was primarily taking the author’s perspective. One strongly believes that religion still plays an active role in contemporary societies’ values and beliefs; as it assists in the formation of values and conformity with moral and ethical standards on a more universal and global scale. However, one finds it difficult to agree with the contention that â€Å"If it can be appreciated that many of our most celebrated achievements have been directly facilitated by a human community (and not by God), then community may provide a powerful source of inspiration for this new, common faith† (Hildebrand 202). One is convinced that human community, by nature, cannot be separated from the purpose of God’s creation. As such, the driving force of human community is still believed to be theologically spurred, especially for very religious groups, like predominantly Catholic nations. The steadfast and firm believe in God has entrenched values and beliefs which emphasize

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Investigation into Virtual Organisation facilities Coursework

Investigation into Virtual Organisation facilities - Coursework Example Growing complexity in the business environment makes "business as usual" ineffective. (Keen, 1991) Globalization calls for communication and synchronization across diverse time zones and locations. Time constraints require reduction in reaction time, driving businesses to just-in-time inventory, orders, scheduling, payments, manufacturing, distribution, etc. Change has become the norm, an unpredictable basic reality. The fresh economic cutting edge is the knowledge economy, and right now about 97% of all employment expansion is coming from knowledge work. Wealth today is generated principally by the value people add through new ideas. (Moyer, 1994) What members of these workgroups do is called collaborative work and they must often overcome barriers of time zones and geography to document what has been accomplished. (Stuck, 1995) To stay aggressive in today's business atmosphere requires new levels of collaboration and dexterity, both within and between organizations. Communications networks and IT are the tools that make possible this "working together apart," and telecommuting (or home working) is making workgroups more productive. (Stuck, 1995) IT plays a fundamental role in supporting critical activities, enabling organizations to make efficient and effective changes in the manner in which work is performed (Turban, 1996) and offering real potential for changing the way in which people work (Daniels, 1995). For example, the Internet provides a way for small businesses to create a virtual organization to complete projects (Blotzer, 1995). Companies are forming worldwide mutual provisions as the basis for developing a competitive advantage from technology (Bailetti, 1993). Coordination of IT management presents a real challenge to these firms which have to deal with detached, decentralized IT practices (DeSanctis, 1994). While decentralization may bring litheness and fast response to changing needs, it also makes systems integration difficult, presents' obstruction to standardization, and acts as a disincentive for achieving economies of scale (DeSanctis, 1994). In juxtaposition with rapid changes in the business environment, the way in which business is conducted is also changing at a rapid pace. Groups, not individuals, have become the fundamental unit of work in modern organizations, with non-routine and new work most often being accomplished through teams, committees, or ad hoc workgroups (Finholt, 1990). Groups and group behavior are momentous for both organizational performance and individual group members. Computer-based technology may affect these groups and their behavior. At least some electronic groups behave

Monday, July 22, 2019

Geographic Information System Essay Example for Free

Geographic Information System Essay A Geographic Information system or a GIS is a tool to capture, store and managing data which are spatially related to Earth. In close terms, the system is related to managing, integrating, storing and analyzing geographically referenced information. Geographic Information system is used in the process of scientific research, natural resource management, impact of pollution on environment, land use and planning, company sales and marketing and criminology. For example, Geographic Information system is often used energy planners who need to calculate the emergency response times during an emergency like a natural disaster. Also, Geographic Information system is used to find the areas that are affected by pollution – wet lands or used by companies to take advantage of an untapped economy or an unreserved market. HISTORY OF GIS The first use of a Geographic Information system is that recorded in 1854, by Sir John Snow. In the event of Cholera outbreak in London, he used a map which directed signs towards the individual cases of cholera in the city. This study which helped the administration to reach to the source of the outbreak, which was an infected water pump. After knowing the root cause of the outbreak, immediate steps were taken by the administration. This strategy of John Snow to collect all the information about the cholera cases in the city on a geographical map of the city and then to analyze the information at hand, thereby reaching at some conclusions that were helpful in fighting with the outbreak is the true essence of a Geographic Information system. Fig 1: Map showing clusters of Cholera cases in London by John Snow In the year 1962, the true face of Geographic Information system came into existence with the Federal Department of Rural development in Canada. The first Geographic Information system was developed by Dr. Roger Tomlinson, and was to help the Land inventory department to gather and analyze information related to the land use and capability, soil structure and forest area in Ontario. This system possessed some enhanced features like – mapping, overlaying, measurement, scaling and scanning. It also had a co-ordinate system that could inter relate every other part of the continent and could scale huge areas into very small ones. The use of overlays in extending the method of spatial analysis of geographical data was also included in this first Geographic Information system. However, this Geographic Information system was never brought out into the market for commercialization purposes. The first commercial Geographic Information system was developed during the late 1980’s by the MS Computing research Institute and this commercial Geographic Information system had a successful combination of the first Geographic Information system developed in 1962 by Sir John Snow. It had the technique of spatial attribution, and organizing of data with the help of database structures. With the onset of the 20th century, there was a fast growth in the development of commercial Geographic Information systems to transport, gather and analyze data in all commercial fields. Recently, there has been an increase in the number of free open source commercial Geographic Information systems which can be used in accordance with a number of operating systems and can also be customized top match up some specific tasks. DATA CREATION IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM The Geographic Information Systems that exist today make use of the information that is present in the digital form. The methods of data creation for a Geographic Information system are many and the most commonly accepted method for data creation of digital data is digitization. In this method, Computer aided design method is used to transfer the data present on a hard copy, into a digital form, and geo-referencing capabilities. Another popular form of extracting geographical data into digital form is by ortho-rectified imagery, in which head up digitizing is the main way through which tracing of geographical data is done directly rather than traditionally tracing the geographical data on a different digitizing tablet. LINKING INFORMATION FROM VARIOUS ORIGINS With the help of Geographic Information Systems, a myriad of information gathering is possible. Suppose for example, if the rainfall data about a particular state and its aerial snaps or the area are gathered, then it relatively easier to predict the area which dries up during summer. A Geographic Information Systems can make use of various forms of information by linking them together and analyzing the whole bunch together. The elementary requirement for knowing the exact source of data is the knowledge of variables. The location of a certain area is denoted by x,y,z coordinates, where x corresponds to Longitude, y corresponds to latitude and z corresponds to elevation. These values may vary according to the needs and types of data required. A Geographic Information System is capable of changing any form of digital data into usable form that is recognized by the system and is used. For instance, the satellite images that are generated with the help of remote sensing satellites are processed by a Geographic Information System to corresponding map like information which can be easily read by the Geographic Information System. Similarly, the hydrologic tabular data in the tabular form can be converted into a data map, which is used as layers of information in a Geographic Information System. DATA REPRESENTATION The Geographic Information System offers the presentation of real time objects like land, roads, height etc, in the digital form. However, the real time data is further divided into two types: discrete and continuous data. Discrete data includes data like a building, area of land, while continuous data represents level of rain, height of a particular area, or elevation. There are two main methods of storing data in a Geographic Information System for both discrete and continuous forms. 1. Raster method – this form of data is stored in the form of cell rows and cell columns, where a single value data is stored in each cell. Since raster is used to store a single data, in each cell, continuous forms of data an extended table of more than one row or column is used. 2. Vector Method – in a Geographic Information System, it is often needed to express data in the form of vectors. In order to store data which possesses some sort of direction, use of polygons is made in the Geographic Information Systems. These polygons or geometrical shapes are also called as Shape files. Zero dimensional points, one dimensional lines, two dimensional polygons are some examples of shape files used in Geographic Information Systems. Points are used to denote real time objects like location of a school, building, home, well etc. lines are used to denote roads, railway lines, rivers etc. polygons are used to point to an area of land, city boundaries, water bodies etc. Each of these geometric shapes / geometries are associated with single rows in the database of the Geographic Information System, and this describes their characteristics completely. For example, consider a Geographic Information System data base that gives information about the various lakes in a particular area, their depth, and quality of water, color of water and the level of pollutants that are mixed with water. These sets of information can be each used separately to make a map to describe that particular data set. Also, the Geographic Information Systems can be used to identify and locate the wells that are present in the area, in particular that are within the one mile area of the lake. The wells are identified as point geometry and the lakes as polygon geometry in the Geographic Information System data map sets. Vector characteristics in a Geographic Information System data set can also be altered to maintain the spatial characteristic or integrity of a particular data / location, with the application of certain topology rules. A simple basic rule used in Geographic Information Systems is that the polygons must never overlap each other. The vector data sets can be appropriately used to represent the continuous data sets or continuously varying information. The contour lines and triangulated discontinuous areas and networks are used to characterize the elevation / height above sea level and other examples of continuous values. The triangulated discontinuous areas record the values of a point location which are in the form of a mesh formed with the help of lines connected from each other signifying other areas and point locations. For example, the face of a mesh in the form of a triangle is used to represent the terrain surface in Geographic Information Systems.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Analysis Of Claude Steeles Whistling Vivaldi

Analysis Of Claude Steeles Whistling Vivaldi This semester has proven to be a very useful for the development of both my reading and writings skills. For me, as for a person who merely five months ago came from a country where English language is known by a few, this experience was vital in a way that it opened up the secrets of effective reading, writing and analyzing in English language. Before taking the College Writing course I had a hard time understanding the proper writing process, which seemed very vague to me, but as I began taking my first steps in trying to understand it I have realized that it was only fear that took over me. Although many would think that the final result is only what matters, for me the process was more engaging. The course has offered a wide range of reading and writing techniques and styles, thus taught me to transfer my ideas to paper clearly and effectively. However, applying theory in practice would have been much harder if there were not the preparatory writing assignments that we had throug hout semester. The essays and papers we wrote throughout semester helped me to trace my progress in writing process. They helped me comfortably and very efficiently write papers based on academic journals and articles. In the beginning of the semester, one of my weaknesses was the organization of sentences and paragraphs. The process of writing an essay has changed over the semester. At first I would start writing essay by putting all of my ideas onto paper thus making an inappropriate organization. But having realized the importance of making a thesis statement I have less trouble organizing main points of each paragraph. Even though it is hard to develop a solid and clear thesis, I understand its significance as it states the argument that reader will be reading. The first major assignment that we did this semester was the paper on Robert Sapolskys Ego Boundaries, or the Fit of My Fathers Shirt. This assignment was unique in its nature, as it demanded us to deeply analyze each and every part of the text: summarize it, reflect upon the ideas of the text by explaining them, and finally exploring our own experiences with those ideas. Clearly, the assignments goal was to teach us the proper way to understand texts, and integrate ideas that are present in texts with our own lives. I have to admit that in the beginning I had no idea how to complete the assignment, but with the clear directions that were provided, I managed to do it. It was very surprising when I realized that the writing process for this paper was very mechanical and precise. Before this paper, I always thought that writing such complicated papers required a lot of imagination, which I thought I did not have. However, now I understand that all that I needed to do is to read the tex t thoroughly, brainstorm for ideas, and to formulate the final version of the paper based on my ideas and on drafts that I previously wrote. I felt a huge satisfaction and relief after completion of the assignment, because I have learnt a huge lesson for myself from this assignment and I was ready for this type of tasks in the future. However, as confident as I felt after completing the Sapolsky paper, I had never imagined that there were different approaches to writing these kinds of essays. One of the major tasks was to write an essay based on a very complicated book by Ervin Goffman The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. This book was intended for large audiences with no particular knowledge about the study of psychology. Nevertheless, the text was very difficult to analyze as it contained many complicated words, intricate sentence structure, and allusions to other works on similar topics. . I felt overwhelmed by reading long and complicated literature because I thought I needed to remember every single detail that I read. However I learned to highlight the main ideas as I read so that I could go back and find details if I needed to recall on them for my essay. Due to this technique, I improved my analytical skill tremendously and was able to extract the main ideas throughout the text, and combine them to w rite a decent essay. The primary difficulties I faced doing this task were the abundance of scientific terms and the overall difficulty of the text. In order to understand the text, I had to read it carefully, part by part, so that I could get the connection between the ideas in the text. By taking notes every time I encountered something interesting and provoking, I managed to construct the outline for the essay. Then, writing the essay itself became much easier since I had all the ideas on my notes. The only thing I had to do to finish the assignment was to assemble the notes and combine them in meaningful sentences and in correct order to provide the essay with a proper flow and preciseness. The course has offered a wide range of reading and writing techniques and styles, thus helping me formulate the notion of clear, rich, and focused writing. The essays and papers we wrote this semester helped me formulate my own writing process, with help of which I can comfortably and very efficiently write papers based on academic readings that the university classes offer. As far as I am concerned, I have become a much more attentive reader and a much better writer since I took this class. I have to admit that I was rather skeptical about what the class had to offer me, but now I understand how important it was for me to be a part of this class and had such a valuable experience. With the knowledge that I have acquired during this semester, I am very eager to start working on papers and essays regarding my own field of specialization. Understanding other peoples stories In his article Understanding Other People Stories Roger Schank discusses the challenges people encounter when trying to understand each other. According to Schank, people frequently do not understand what others tell them. It is easier to remember a notion or a belief if it is told in a form of a story. He presents a theory that all the information, experience and events we understand are incorporated in a story that that we remember and share with others. Schank states that understanding means to respond to the speakers stories with stories of listeners own memory. People learn from stories if they can relate it to something that they previously knew. Moreover, we truly understand a new story only if it made us reexamine our previous stories. Throughout the text author talks about different things that are important to know about understanding other peoples stories. There is an interesting point that the author describes is a selective listening. People hear only some parts of the stories they are told and tend to listen to the ones that interest them. The reason for that is that we care about topics that we can understand and relate to. We cannot think of about all the possible ramifications of something we are being told. So we pay attention to what interests us (Schank, 374). He presents a notion about index, which is a kind of symbol that helps people classify all the stories they have in the memory. Schank describes it as [a]n index is a juxtaposition of another persons beliefs, made evident by statements or actions, with ones own beliefs (Schank, 380). We use them to label some stories of beliefs that we had before in our system of values. Furthermore, the author describes the topic about the way people understand stories as that they do it by reflecting their own stories onto the speakers stories. Understanding process of other peoples stories involves identifying ourselves to our own memories. We can use our own stories to confirm the beliefs of others that were imposed on a particular object. An example of this is my recent conversation with my parents. Last time using Skype, we were talking about my new life at Berkeley. I told them my story of getting used to my new environment that involved the difficulties and obstacles that I struggled with during the first month. There were a lot of challenges; I told them that it is really hard to study abroad, and particularly at such a place as Berkeley. I have troubles with a lot of things ranging from studying unfamiliar subjects to living in the dorm. Interestingly, their response was recalling their own time when they were students in college as I am now. And what they told me is that everybody goes through this process that I am neither the first one nor the last one. The academic year will pass quickly before I even notice it. I just need to be patient and do my best to succeed in college. I found their answer interesting, since I could see the relation of it to the idea that people understand stories by reflecting their own stories. My parents reflected my story to their own experience when they were in college. They saw my story as a story about them as a Subject 5 from the text did. They found an index of studying at college is difficult time and that everyone goes through this process. As a result they just confirmed their previously held beliefs about hard time at university. This is an example of the process when people understand a story by recalling their own memories. Another interesting idea that the author highlights in the article is that people often misunderstand other peoples stories by relating their own experience to the new story. When the listener hears a new story he finds an old story from his memory, which he can use to relate it to. However, the idea is that we usually find only one principle to relate a story, because it is enough for us. That is why each person understands stories in a different way. A good example of that could be how I personally got confused when I was reading Robert Sapolskys Ego boundaries or the Fit of my Father Shirt. At first, I misunderstood the nitroglycerin bottle as the bottle containing the ashes of the authors father. This happened because of the word frailty, which I thought to be remains of his father, but having discussed this article in the class I realized that this was just a medicine that his father used to take. This misunderstanding happened because of my previous experiences with the word fr ailty. I related the context of the text as a story about people who hold ashes of their ancestors in a vase, since it is important and sacred remains of their loved ones. Because I initially knew a story about such people I just related it to the new story that I have read. My index was that people remember and honor deceased relatives in way of storing their ashes. I had a belief that people often keep the ashes of their ancestors after the death, so that they have some part of the deceased person to relate to him. Thus recalling a previously known story to understand a new one led me to misunderstanding the core context. This example proves the idea that people often misunderstand stories by reflecting their own meanings on it. To learn from the story you need to enhance the old story with details that you matched with a new one. Because people tend to understand other peoples stories mainly through reflecting the stories they previously knew, the question then arises: How do people get beyond this circle of understanding and learning new things? Schank answers this with a contradictory approach. He argues that it happens due to irregularity in understanding stories. By not fully understanding the story they learn something new easily since that piece of information gets stuck in their memories for a while when they identify the mistake afterwards., as he points this out, [w]e really only learn when the stories we hear relate to beliefs that we feel rather unsure of, ones that we are flirting with at the moment, so to speak. When we are wondering, consciously or unconsciously, about the truthà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦, then the evidence provided by others can be of some use (Schank, 388). Schank believes that people c an learn something new only when they ask questions and analyze their views. For example, in the Sapolskys article Ego boundaries or the Fit of my Father Shirt, the author describes the relationship with his father, and the way he thought about his father as a mentally ill person. He tries to use his previously known stories such as scientific knowledge of the disorders to explain the illness of his father. His index is that science can explain everything. He uses his understanding of mental disorder to examine the behavior of his father. As a result, Sapolsky considers his father as a scientific case not as a father. Using his scientific knowledge he tries to explain that his father had split brain disorder that led to vanishing of his ego boundaries. However, through the process, he realizes that he is not able to justify his previously believed thoughts about his father as a mentally ill patient, because the science could not answer all of the questions the author had. In the end he understands that the problem was not in the diagnosis, but in the attitude towards the problems he had with his father. Thus, he teaches himself a new story: by reexamining his previously held beliefs about an index that scientific approach can explain everything in the life. In the conclusion we can see that the process of understanding other peoples stories is complicated. Understanding involves such process as indexing, finding old stories to relate, and reflecting them to the new ones. We usually do it by relating our own stories to the new stories that we hear, but finding similar elements in our own story and the story being told is different to all people. Therefore, we learn from new stories if we rethink our previously held beliefs. The Role of Thefts in Theft The main topic in Joyce Carol Oatess Theft are the different kinds of thefts. Theft in the story appears to take both physical and intangible forms such as stealing pens, wallets, personalities, authority and reputation. Theft is a zero-sum game with no win-win outcome. That is a fundamental idea which lies throughout Oates story. Peoples vulnerabilities, bad habits and motivations of hatred are resembled through these thefts. The author presents several facts of theft to allow a reader to analyze motives of a thief, his/her psychology and consequences of such their acts. The main character, a college sophomore, Marya Knauer has a complex and ambiguous attitude towards theft. She perceives it as a weakness, which prevails over her sense of moral duty and voice of reason, but also as a tool that she believes can empower her. Her first stealing experience began with silly little shoplifting expeditions which insensibly rose into a sequence of spontaneous, rash and pointless thefts (143). Admittedly, stealing gave her a feeling of elation and triumph when she appropriated someones genuinely valuable possessions. It can be inferred that Marya clearly understood that her habit to steal was disgusting but she could not resist any opportunity to do so. It seems she sought excitement and a dose of adrenaline by getting involved in risky and morally unacceptable affairs. Moreover, Marya considered theft as an act of liberating herself when her personal life was constrained and dictated by others will, when she had had to submit to the routine schedule of Wilmas household and she was living her life as it were nothing more than an extension of theirs (142). Stealing made her feel free because she could transgress the bounds of decency, disregard rules, and neglect prohibitions without being caught and taken into accountability. She could hardly fight her impulse even though her euphoria lasted fraction of a second. For Marya stealing was a way of seeking revenge from people who tried to take advantage from her. She stole a pen from a professor who did not give her a good grade, because he lost some of her work during grading. Having put much effort in studying, she took everything too seriously what resulted in professor calling her rather grim as she was always thinking only about academics. The reaction to such rude remark was her lying about her mo ther serious illness and stealing the professors pen. Marya felt her pulses were beating hot, in triumphed for a way of defeating the professor for the words he said and for the grades he gave (158). Moreover, she did not feel guilty or ashamed because she believed that professor deserved this. She started using this pen signing her name repeatedly, hypnotically: Marya, Marya, Marya Knauer, Marya Marya Marya Knauer, a name that eventually seemed to have been signed by someone else, a stranger (159). She saw this act of stealing as triumph over the professor, who tried to hurt Maryas identity. Interestingly, theft takes on a more sophisticated form when it comes to reading. The reading she did acquired an aura, a value, a mysterious sort of enchantment (142). It was perceived as a forbidden fruit, something illicit, precious beyond estimation (142). Indeed, she could be completely immersed in reading, slipping out of her consciousness and into that of the writers (142). She found herself entirely absorbed into writers ideas and mentality as if her mind was led by an invisible hand, and that experience was electrifying and hypnotizing. It prompted her to conceive life as an ephemeral and to regard everything as superficial and trivial. Mere life was the husk, the actors performance, negligible in the long run (142). Reading as a process was equally elating and exciting as stealing but not criminal and risky. Maryas personality was splitting and she started losing authenticity while making her way through writers imagination, greedily reading every word as it was her own, tr eating every emotion, idea expressed and the plot itself as her own creation. Maryas addiction to reading can be expressed by absence of any intrigue in her personal life, which Oates describes as isolated, ascetic, and monotonous (143). Reading is treated as a one-sided relationship which she benefits from without giving anything back. When the book Marya read seemed to take life through her, she could get her emotions, which are usually experienced and nurtured through building relations with other people. The first theft that is depicted in the story happens with Marya, when her wallet with a month salary from part time job at university library and her favorite pen were stolen from her room in Maynard House. These incidents made Marya become anxious and angry, feeling unprotected before the real world. It ruined her previous impressions of the university life and made her very cautious and even distrustful for other students. Marya decided to isolate from the world by staying in her room all the time and reading every book she could find. (142). As a consequence she became a complete robot, having a derelict life, because she could not trust anyone in her dormitory anymore. Marys isolated living and unsocial behavior reflects her attitude towards friendship. She asserts that friendship is a waste of time on something ephemeral and not worthwhile (154). Marya is completely obsessed with studying; her energy is devoted to maintaining high grades. However, relationship with Imogene alters her perception of the friendship. It evolves from a friendly acquaintance to admiration, mutual benefit, envy, competition, ignorance and culminates in break up. Imogene is presented as a chameleon playing various roles in public, quickly adapting her behavior to changing circumstances, and changing her mood and attitudes frequently. Her inquisitive character and easygoing informality are seen by Marya as intrusion into her privacy, her secret isolation. Marya and Imogene become interdependent but they are not interested in the actual friendship. Maryas life changed drastically when she met Imogene Skillman. The first time when Imogene appeared in the dorm room, Marya was depressed and reduced the protection level from the world. Marya recognized from the first look that Imogene was somewhat unique person, not resembling other student on the campus. But Marya could not fully understand what Imogenes real personality was. After spending more time with Imogene, Marya still did not acknowledge that they are becoming friends. She always questioned herself if she appreciated Imogenes friendship and even accepted that she liked Prhyllis more (153). This girl majored in mathematics and lived next-door, and according to Maryas system of values of true friendship Philly was a best match as an appropriate company. In spite of Phyllis being more likeable friend, Marya could not stop thinking that she is more inclined towards Imogene. Marya is flattered by Imogenes attention; she accompanies her to coffee shop, meets with her friends trying to impress them. Marya cautiously succumbs to Imogenes admiration and tolerates flattery since she fears becoming dependent on her friendship, for dependency is equivalent to limited freedom. Her protest against Imogenes influence and domination is expressed in the intense concentration on her academic performance. She threw herself into work with more passion than before, eager to face challenges and vindicate that her intellectual achievements demonstrate her wealth, thus soft power (154). The difficulties in friendship that Marya and Imogene had with each other originate from different backgrounds they had before. First, Marya came from a poor family, where she had to obey restrictions and authority. On the contrary, Imogene being from a rich family had a nonchalant life with lots of freedom and opulence. The thefts that are illustrated in the story had a great influence on the development of the relationship between main characters. Thus, thefts caused Marya and Imogene to realize what true friendship is. However, Marya and Imogene have never become best friends, because Imogene, in contrast, had plans of her own about Marya. Imogene stole Maryas time by spending time in the coffee shops with her friends, stole characteristics of Maryas personality like mimicking in order to perform on stage, and rumored bad things about Maryas reputation. But when Marya realized that Imogene was using her for own purposes, she immediately felt deceived and angry. However, even though Marya understood Imogenes true intentions, she could not stop having relationships with Imogene. Marya discovered Imogenes true nature at the dinner in a sorority house where Marya was invited as a guest. When she heard that Imogene made Matthew write a paper on Chekhov for herself, Marya began suspecting the true Imogenes intentions and desires (163). Her suspicion grew up more when Marya knew about Imogenes cheating on her fiancà © with a stranger. Imogene did it on purpose to make Marya and Matthew jealous of her. After all these underprivileged activities of Imogene, Marya begins to realize that she has become Imogenes possession, a trophy displayed to her alleged admirers, just a decoration in her one-actor performance. Marya rethinks her concept of friendship writing that it is play-acting of an amateur type and a puzzle that demands too much of imagination (154). Maryas protest against Imogenes influence and domination is expressed in the stealing the earrings of Imogene the Aztec ones, the barbarian-princess ones (175). The author wittingly emphasizes the earrings design to show that they symbolize Imogenes social status, popularity and dominance on the campus. Stealing in this case epitomizes betrayal and presumably attempt to appropriate Imogenes privileges. Unlike Maryas previous inconsequential thefts this case has a major impact on both characters. She did it on purpose to get everyones attention to her, to show that Marya was stronger than all the disloyalties and intrigues against her. She even pierced her ears, risking infection and sickness, and showed everyone that she is truly a nut that cant be cracked (174). Marya felt triumphant, she did not fear being caught up and punished. In contrast, Marya had worn earrings everywhere, for everyone to see, to comment, and to admire and she had been amused at Imogenes shocked expression (17 6). That theft left no winner. Imogene and Maryas friendship was completely ruined. Both students driven by envy and competition have been contributing to gradual erosion of their relationship by covertly and sometimes explicitly stealing each others intangible possessions. Various thefts depicted in the story tell readers about the many different circumstances that Marya and Imogenes friendship had to go through. Marya Knauer is a vivid instance of a strong willed personality. Despite all of the hostile and embarrassing obstacles and actions towards her, she managed to overcome and keep the perfect record, so that to save her status and character unbroken. The effects of stereotype threats Whistling Vivaldi by Claude M. Steele is a thorough analysis of a concept known as identity contingency. According to Steele, contingencies are circumstances you have to deal with because of a given social identity. Identity contingencies from the authors perspective represent constraints, both formal and implicit, tied to social, ethnic, religious, gender or any other recognized identity (3). Identity contingencies negatively affect individuals since they deprive those prone to being stereotyped or discriminated of equal opportunities, and abilities. Steeles research interest in identity contingencies and the roles they play in peoples lives stems from his personal experience of segregation. He reflects on his childhood when he was a victim of racial order in the 1950s, which placed a number of restrictions tied to the identity, from housing and school segregation to employment discrimination (3). Those conditions made individuals feel their racial identities and deal with their neg ative implications in everyday life. Steele focuses his research on educational issues tied to identity contingencies and their influence on academic performance among minority college students. The author argues that identity contingencies and specifically stereotype threats negatively impact the intellectual abilities of students; moreover he encourages exploring and implementing solutions to alleviate the stress and underperformance in academic setting in order to help students succeed at university. The aim of the research is to prove the importance of identity contingencies and of understanding identity threat to personal and societal progress (Steele, p.15). Steele comes up with several general patterns of findings. The first is the role identity contingency have in shaping individual lives. The second suggests that their negative impact contributes to the most important social problems in society, thus undermining social integrity. Third is a general process by which stereotype threats interfere with a broad range of human functioning. Finally, they offer a set of solutions that can alleviate effects of the identity threats. At the forefront of Steeles analysis is a stereotype threat, a particular kind of identity contingency. He speculates that stereotype threat embodies a standard human predicament, powerful enough to constrain behavior simply by putting a threat in the air. It is a widespread phenomenon found in any given society and any potential identity group can become subjected to it. It can be applied to any situation to which stereotype is relevant. Thus, it follows members of the stereotyped group into these situations as a balloon over their heads (Steele, p. 5). The author asserts that it is hard to eradicate stereotype threats, though the pressure they impose on individuals can be eased. Stereotype threat is an intrinsic part of human interrelations, a tool used by individuals, driven by a basic instinct of competition. Unlike discrimination in its gross forms, stereotype threats are formed subconsciously to benefit privileges of one social group, competing for opportunity and decent life, at the expense of the other group. The correlation between identity contingency and intellectual performance, in particular academic, preoccupies Steele throughout his research. He sheds light on the issue of academic underperformance of students from underrepresented backgrounds. The problem he believes has repercussions at a nationwide level, even though people think they live in a racially fair and identity-fair society (212). He perceives it as a core American struggle, wherein institutions try to integrate themselves racially, ethnically, class-wise (Steele, p. 17). In his attempt to reveal what factors account for persistent academic struggles of minority students, Steele uses a concept known as observers actors perspective. The actors perspective emphasizes students characteristics, their intellectual luggage, aspirations, values, skills, and expectations. He accesses that the actors perspective can be essential in explaining underperformance since the observers perspective alone cannot provide the full pictur e of the problem. His research appeals to E. Jones and R. Nisbett concept of the difference between those two perspectives. They argued that the observers perspective is subject to bias because it stresses the things we can see, the actors traits and characteristics. But it deemphasizes these traits and characteristics which fall out of the observers literal and mental visual field, namely circumstances the actor responds to and the environment he has to adapt to. Steele believes that the actors perspective can offer a plausible explanation of the link between identity contingency and intellectual performance. The feedback he receives from minority students supports his view. Students noted the university environment, wherein their social status was subtly accentuated and social life which was organized by race, ethnicity, and social class. This organization led to a rather racially homogeneous teaching staff and faculty. As a result, their social networks were organized by race. They were also puzzle d by the fact that minority styles, interests and preferences were marginalized on campus (Steele, p. 19). Steele in his book presents several experiments conducted to demonstrate how stereotype threat indirectly affects behavior and interferes with physical or intellectual performance. Experiments he refers to, Michigan Athletic Aptitude Test and the one done at Princeton University, clearly show that the pressure stereotype threat is distracting enough to lead to individuals failure in particular task. The task in experiment measured the very trait and ability the group was stereotyped as lacking. Knowledge of the negative stereotypes relevance in the given situation made the assessed group fear that frustration on the task could be misinterpreted and seen as confirming the stereotype. Hence, any deviation in performance, whether mental or physical, or a false move could cause an individual to be reduced to the stereotype and treated accordingly. Steele admits that it is hard to prove that something abstract like stereotype threat can have a substantial effect on the individuals perform ance. Nonetheless, the research and experiments he undertakes supports his hypothesis of stereotype threats detrimental effect on individual performance. His research focus raises a number of thought-provoking questions about the ways stereotypes affect our intellectual functioning, stress reactions, and the tension that can exist between different groups. Moreover, he explores strategies that alleviate these effects in order to help solve societal problems (Steele, p. 13). Steele conducts an experiment to prove that academic achievement problem of minority students is not entirely due to skill and ability deficits. He contends that external factors and social and psychological aspects of academic experience can be powerful enough to directly or indirectly impair intellectual performance. Hence, the environment and status of a student can be an actual component of ability. Steele comes up with a stigmatization idea, an idea that a devalued social status can cause und

The Aicpa Code Of Professional Conduct Indicates That Threats To Independence Accounting Essay

The Aicpa Code Of Professional Conduct Indicates That Threats To Independence Accounting Essay According to Auditing and Assurance Services (2011), the general purpose of Rule 101, Independence, is that a member in public practice shall be independent in the performance of professional services as required by standards promulgated by bodies designated by Council. Rule 101 relates primarily to audit and attest engagements. Auditing and Assurance Services (2011) states that auditors should preserve independence, the mental attitude and appearance that auditors are not influenced by others in making judgments and decisions, by a) avoiding financial connections that appear that the auditors wealth depends on the outcome of the audit and b) avoiding managerial connections that make it appear that the auditors are involved in management decisions for the audit client (thus auditing their own work). Auditing and Assurance Services (2011) further states that covered members (in a position to influence can attest engagement) are prohibited from having any financial interest in clients that could affect their audit judgment (independence in fact) or would appear to others to have an influence on their judgment (independence in appearance). In addition, immediate family members are under the same restrictions as the auditor. The AICPA Code of Professional Conduct has the following guidelines in regards to covered members: A covered member cannot: Have a direct financial interest in a client Have a material indirect financial interest in a client Be a trustee or administrator of an estate that has a direct or material indirect financial interest in a client. Have a joint investment with a client that is material to the covered member. Have a loan to or from a client, any officer of the client, or any individual owning more than 10 percent of the client (except as specifically described in interpretation 101-5). Participate on an attest engagement if they were formally employed by the client in a position to influence the audit or acted as an officer, director, promoter, underwriter, or trustee of a pension or profit-sharing trust of the client. A covered members immediate family cannot: Have a direct financial interest in a client. Have a material indirect financial interest in a client. A covered members close relatives cannot: Have a key position with a client Have a material financial interest in a client that is known to the covered member. Have a financial interest in a client that allows the relative to have a significant influence in a client. Be in a position to influence the audit. A partner or professional employee cannot: Be associated with a client as a director, officer, employee, promoter, underwriter, voting trustee, or trustee of a pension or profit-sharing trust of the client. The AICPA Professional Ethics Executive Committee (PEEC) has a three step risk-based approach to evaluate whether a practice or relationship poses an unacceptable risk to CPAs independence. The steps are: 1) Identifying and evaluating threats to independence; 2) Determining whether safeguards eliminate or sufficiently mitigate the identified threats; 3) Determining whether independence is impaired. (Auditing Assurance Services (2010)). The AICPA Code of Professional Conduct indicates that threats to independence include: Familiarity threat CPAs having a close or longstanding relationship with a client. Adverse interest threat CPAs acting in opposition to clients Undue influence threat Attempts to coerce or otherwise influence the CPA member Self-review threat CPAs reviewing their own work Financial self-interest threat CPAs having a financial relationship with a client Management participation threat CPAs taking on the role of client management or otherwise performing management functions Advocacy threat CPAs promoting a clients interest or position. According to Auditing and Assurance Services (2011), the general purpose of Rule 102, Integrity and Objectivity, states in the performance of any professional service, a member shall maintain objectivity and integrity, shall be free of conflicts of interest, and shall not knowingly misrepresent facts or subordinate his or her judgment to others. Accounting and Assurance Services (2011) states that Rule 102 applies not only to CPAs in public practice but also to CPAs working in government and industry. The rule requires integrity and objectivity in all types of professional work tax practice and consulting practice as well as audit practice for public accountants and all types of accounting work performed by CPAs employed in corporations, not for profit organizations, governments, and individual practices. The AICPA Code of Professional Conduct indicates that in addition to integrity and objectivity, Rule 102 emphasizes 1) being free from conflicts of interest between CPAs and others; 2) representing facts truthfully in reports and discussions; 3) not letting other people dictate or influence the CPAs judgment and professional decisions. Conflicts of interest cited in Rule 102 refer to the need to avoid having business interests in which the accountants personal financial relationships or the accountants relationships with other clients might tempt the accountant to fail to serve the best interests of a client or the public that uses the results of the engagement. The phases shall not knowingly misrepresent facts (Interpretation 102-1) and shall not subordinate his or her judgment to others (Interpretation 102-4) from the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct emphasizes conditions people ordinarily identify with the concepts of integrity and objectivity. The prohibition of misrepresentations in financial statements (Interpretation 102-1) applies to the management accountants who prepare companies statements. Government and industry CPAs should not subordinate their professional judgment to superiors who try to produce materially misleading financial statements and fool their external auditors per Auditing Assurance Services (2011). In addition, government and industry CPAs must be candid and not knowingly misrepresent facts or fail to disclose material facts when dealing with their employers external au ditor. Government and industry CPAs cannot have conflicts of interest in their jobs and their outside business interests that are not disclosed to their employers and approved. Rule 102 has two other applications according to the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct. One concerns serving a client advocate (Interpretation 102-6), which occurs frequently in taxation and rate regulation practice and in supporting clients positions in FASB and SEC proceedings. Client advocacy in support or advancement of client positions is acceptance only so long as the member acts with integrity, maintains objectivity, and does not subordinate judgment to others. The other application is directed specifically to professors. They are supposed to maintain integrity and objectivity, be free of conflicts of interest, and not knowingly misrepresent facts to students (Interpretation 102-5). What do you see as the significance of this section for accountants? Integrity is one of the essential pillars of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) Code of Professional Conduct. The AICPA Code of Professional Conduct describes the  accounting professions public as consisting of clients, credit grantors, governments, employers, investors, the  business  and financial community, and others who rely on the objectivity and integrity of CPAs to maintain the orderly functioning of commerce. A distinguishing mark of the accounting profession is acceptance of its responsibility to honor the public trust. Lenders, investors, government agencies, and other members of the business community rely on the integrity of certified public accountants to help preserve the proper functioning of commercial activities. (Integrity: Still a Hallmark of the Public Accounting Profession? (n.d.)) Active and aspiring public accountants ought to embrace the obligation to act in a way that warrants the faith that the entire public reposes in the work they do or will do. Accountants must remain free from conflicts of interest and other questionable business relationships when conducting accounting services. Failure to remain objective and independent may hamper an accountants ability to provide an honest opinion about a companys financial information. There is a clear directive in the principle: Service and the public trust should not be subordinated to personal gain and advantage. (On Integrity, (n.d.)) Integrity and ethics in the accounting industry came to the forefront during the accounting scandals of 2001. Several major publicly held companies, such as Enron, committed serious accounting fraud that misled employees and the general public about each companys financial health. Upon investigating, government regulators found inappropriate relationships between auditors and their clients. Auditors gave management advice on accounting procedures and conducted external audits, resulting in a lack of independence. Accountants from these firms also engaged in unethical behavior by manipulating accounting information. (Integrity Ethics in the Accounting Industry (n.d.)) Per the AICPA: Failure to follow rules of conduct can result in expulsion from the AICPA. This by itself does not prevent a CPA from practicing public accounting, but it certainly is a weighty social sanction. All expulsions from the AICPA for a violation of the rules are published in the CPA Newsletter, a publication that is sent out to all AICPA members, and in The Wall Street Journal. Where do you see situations in an accounting practice that would make the contents of this section particularly relevant? Offer examples of such situations. Independence: Applying the independence rules for an audit: The people who are prohibited from having financial and managerial relationships with the client are the audit engagement team, the people in the chain of command, the covered persons in the public accounting firm, close family members, and immediate family members. (Auditing Assurance Services (n.d.)). Integrity and Objectivity: Assume that an auditor believes that accounts receivable may not be collectible but accepts managements opinion without an independent evaluation of collectability. The auditor has subordinated his or her judgment and thereby lacks objectivity. Now assume that a CPA is preparing the tax return for a client, and as a client advocate, encourages the client to take a deduction on the returns that the CPA believes is valid, but for which there is some but not complete support. This is not a violation of either objectivity or integrity, because it is acceptable for the CPA to be a client advocate in tax and management services. If the CPA encourages the client to take a deduction for which there is no support but has little chance of discovery by the IRS, a violation has occurred. That is a misrepresentation of the facts; therefore, the integrity of the CPA has been impaired. In regards to freedom from conflicts of interest, it means the absence of relationships that might interfere with objectivity and integrity (AICPA Code of Professional Conduct). For example, it would be inappropriate for an auditor who is also an attorney to represent a client in legal matters. The attorney is an advocate for the client, whereas the auditor must be impartial. Apparent conflicts of interest may not be a violation of the rules of conduct if the information is disclosed to the members client or employer (AICPA Code of Professional Conduct). For example, if a partner of a CPA firm recommends that a client have the security of its Internet website evaluated by a technology consulting firm that is owned by the partners spouse, a conflict of interest may appear to exist. No violation of Rule 102 occurs if the partner informs the clients management of the relationship and management proceeded with the evaluation of that knowledge (AICPA Code of Professional Conduct). Examples of conflict of interest per Auditing Assurance Services (n.d.): CPA is engaged to perform litigation support services for a plaintiff in a lawsuit filed against a client CPA is in a personal financial planning engagement, recommends client investment in business in which the CPA has a financial interest. CPA provides tax services for several members of a family who have opposing interests. CPA performs management consulting for a client and has a financial or managerial interest in a major competitor. CPA serves on a city board of tax appeals, which hears matters involving clients. CPA refers a tax client to an insurance broker, who refers clients to the CPA under an exclusive agreement. CPA charges a contingent fee to a client for expert witness litigation support services when the fee can be affected by the opinion the CPA expresses. Offer a list of five sources that you intend to consult in researching your choice. You may include resources on the AICPA website besides the section of the code you have chosen, but only list the AICPA website as one of your five sources. I plan on searching the numerous articles located on the following websites: In addition, I will be utilizing the NEC library online and also my textbooks from my prior NEC courses. The Auditing Assurance textbook used as a reference in this paper is from the NEC auditing course.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Synesthesia :: Biology Medical Medicine Research

In the mornings, my cat often takes up a post on my chest. His presence is heralded by a chirpy meow and four quarter-sized points of pressure where his feet make contact; as he relaxes, he settles into a loud, rhythmic purr, and the pressure of his 16 pounds is more evenly distributed across my ventral torso. If I'm slow to open my eyes, he reaches out a paw and gently pricks my face with his claws †¹ enough to make an impression but not do real damage. When I do open my eyes, I see the triangles of his ears, the dense, velvety blackness of his fur and the sheen of his nose; his yellow irises are thin rings around his dilated pupils in the dim, early light. Suppose I experienced all of those sensations up to the point of opening my eyes †¹ the pressure of my cat's weight and the pricks of his claws, his meowing and his purr †¹ and then I opened my eyes to the absence of any visual evidence of a cat. I'd be confused and disoriented, and if the tactile and auditory stimuli continued, probably panicky. A fundamental reworking of how I understand the world would be necessary to account for an invisible cat. Now suppose that the next time I heard guitar music, I failed to perceive a soft brushing sensation around my ankles. It would not bother me a bit. But for Carol Crane, a guitar that didn't affect her ankles might provoke the same sort of confusion and anxiety an invisible cat would induce in me. To Crane, the ankle-brushing sensation has always been an integral part of guitar music, just as violins always act upon her face and trumpets on the back of her neck. Crane has a rare condition called synesthesia, in which a stimulus usually perceived in one sensory modality produces a sensation in one or more other sensory modalities. (1). Synesthesia has many forms †¹ synesthetes may taste shapes or feel odors, for instance, or perceive alphanumeric characters in particular colors. Synesthetic perceptions are involuntary and are reliably triggered by the phenomena that induce them. They are also consistent over time for a given synesthete; that is, a true synesthete for whom the musical note E produces a percept of red triangles on a field of yellow will invariably experience that sound that way.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Motiff of King Lear :: English Literature Essays

Motiff of King Lear One of the primary themes portrayed in "King Lear" is the harsh effects of betrayal by one's loved ones. Incorporated in this message is the fact that such betrayal can be avoided with sound judgment and temper, and with patience in all decisions. Shakespeare uses the motif of madness to aid in this message. Anger and insanity are coupled to illustrate the theme, and they both cloud the judgment of characters in various ways. A contrast between actual insanity and fabricated madness aids in the depiction of the main theme as well. King Lear's temper and madness in the form of anger are shown in Act I, when he is quick to banish Cordelia, under the false impression that she does not love him. Kent tries to warn him, and says "When Lear is mad, ... When majesty stoops to folly," implying that Lear's rage has blinded him from making the correct decision. Lear's anger is heightened when Goneril insults him and he decides to leave her castle. His anger consumes him until he is forced to scream to the skies, "O Let me not be mad... Keep me in temper." In Act II, after he is betrayed by Regan as well, he says to his servant, "O Fool, I shall go mad." He is saying that he is so overcome by pain that he will go mad, not knowing that, ironically, his anger will later transform into true insanity. Edgar offers a different pathway for the madness motif to unfold. In Act II, after fleeing Gloucester's castle, he decides to disguise himself as a beggar with no clothes and "lunatic bans." He pretends to be mad for the majority of the story and in another ironic twist, it is this so-called madman that actually brings many truths to light. Lear's madness begins to unfold in Act III. Kent notes in the shelter, that "his wits begin to unsettle." Scene IV is a blatant display of madness by Lear and the acting Edgar, who converse with each other in incoherent outbursts. Lear becomes more and more unstable as he uses two stools as models of his daughters and places them on trial for the crimes they have committed against him. In Act IV, Edgar is reunited with Gloucester, who thinks he is a madman. Edgar actually saves his father's life in this act, still pretending to be mad the entire time.