Wednesday, October 30, 2019

HR Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

HR Management - Essay Example It is also responsible for the devising of strategy and its apposite implementation on the staff members, conducting training sessions for them and arranging seminars, meetings and discussions for the boosting up of their morale. In addition, forecasting, planning, allocation of resources and keeping the work environment healthy, steady and peaceful are also included in the responsibilities of human resource department. Human resource department also maintains equilibrium within the organisation and condemns any type of discriminatory behaviour on the basis of caste, class, community, ethnicity, race, religion, age-group, sexual orientation and gender, where no biasness or prejudice could be inflicted upon the employees on the basis of above-described characteristics. â€Å"HR Managers are usually the ultimate sources of expert advice and guidance on harassment and discrimination in their centres. They need to be knowledgeable of centre’s policy but also have an understanding of harassment and discrimination beyond the policies themselves.† (Retrieved from Consequently, sexual discrimination is strictly prohibited in workplace, and the persons guilty of such acts are liable to be tried at the court of law. The government has strictly condemned gender discrimination in work places at both governmental and private sectors. It has issued decrees and passed anti-discriminatory laws including Sex Discrimination Act 1975 and the Equal Pay Act, so that the female employees could also obtain same status equal to men at organisations and work places. Hence, the above-described provisions of Sex Discrimination Act 1975 manifestly view discrimination between men and women on the basis of their gender as the discriminatory one. Though, the act has been in vogue for the last three and half decades, yet it is mere theoretical in nature; as in

Monday, October 28, 2019

Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court (Book Report) Essay Example for Free

Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court (Book Report) Essay Mark Twain is often thought of as the most cynical writer in American literature. A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court is perhaps one of greatest works. In this amusing story, Twain takes an American entrepreneur from his own day and age, and thrusts him back to the age of King Arthur. The novel is therefore about how a nineteenth-century American industrialist might act if he found himself in medieval England. Mark Twain sees the Industrial Age in which he lived as a rabid attempt to exploit everyone and everything. And, thats exactly what Hank Morgan, also known as the â€Å"Boss†, does when he gets to Camelot. Hank uses science and technology to exploit Camelot. Threatened with execution, Hank remembers that an eclipse is supposed to occur in the near future, and he uses this knowledge to convince King Arthur and the rest of Camelot that Hank is a stronger magician than Merlin. Once Hank gains King Arthurs trust, he is able to do whatever he wants with Camelot and its people. Hank quickly goes about improving Camelot with industries and technologies that are common to nineteenth-century America. One of his schemes is to invent soap and making it available to all of the people of Camelot (since the people didn’t bathe as frequently in the third-century as they did in the nineteenth). Hank is appalled at how much power that the Established Church has over the people. So he decides that the people need to be educated, which will, naturally, weaken the churchs hold. Of course, being an entrepreneur at heart, Hank cant help but look on Camelot as an opportunity for exploiting people with his superior knowledge. In a very memorable scene, Hank describes the religious devotions of many of the monks of the time as, a monk who expresses his devotion to God by bowing over and over again, all day long, without stopping. Rather than being impressed by the monks passionate display of faith, Hank notes the astounding amount of energy the monk puts out every day. Not to see this wasted, he hooks up a sewing machine to the monk, using his bowing motions to run the machine. In this manner Hank manufactures and sells garments as religious souvenirs, and tells the readerwith not a little satisfactionabout the wild success of these garments. Beyond Twains customary critiques on slavery and religion, the book also  offers a somewhat different brand of cynicism Twains critique of science and progress. When Hank Morgan arrives in Camelot, it is a fairy-tale city that has long represented both nobility and weaknesses. Then, in his quest to improve the city, he destroys it. Everything that defines the time from the smelly, unwashed people to their superstitions and religious fervor is exploited in the name of progress. Here, then, we see Hank Morgan as an expression of Twains dislike with the value of modern progress.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Essay --

Sixteenth-century people might define â€Å"black† similar to the way the Oxford English Dictionary would define it; something filthy or dirty, an obscure or deadly idea, involving decease concepts, and awful thoughts. They compared black to something pertaining to the devil. Since this was the concept of the word black, Englishmen began to believe that black people were derived from the actual word and made the sixteenth-century people believe that they are bad people to the world; when in reality, the blacks were as normal as the Englishmen. Most Englishmen believed that the main reason why the African’s skin are so dark was because of the sun. This theory was misleading due to the fact that Americans, who were in the same line as the Africans, still had light colored skin. The theories included in the text changed the way Englishmen viewed the Africans. To them, the Africans were considered a â€Å"novelty† and were ugly by just their complexion. Most Englishmen and Christians are familiar with the concept of heathenism. Englishmen would commonly differentiate the heathenisms of Indians and Negroes. Heathenism was typically a general refusal to take suitable values. The communication between both sides was very distinct and difficult; though, Englishmen would only make it seem as if they weren’t meeting the requirements. The sexual behaviors that the Africans performed were normal to the Englishmen. They took their sexuality and thought of it as a way that animals behave themselves. The comparison of the Negro to the animal was like calling them creatures and it disrespected them. The interpretation strengthened the prejudice towards the Africans because it made the Englishmen acknowledge them for the way they are. The pr... ...ering American industry. Henry Clay’s opinion on Free Trade as expressed in the document is that it never existed and that if we do destroy our laws on trade to make it free then it wouldn’t be free until other foreign nations have made theirs free as well. Lastly, he lists that America would be able to accommodate themselves to this unjust from the way America is already flexible to changes. According to Harriet Hanson Robinson, one of the primary reasons why women worked in the mills was to make sure that the men of the family can continue pursuing their education so that it can later benefit the family economically. I believe that the emancipation of slaves was passed before the right of women to vote because slaves were seen under women and were treated harshly. They didn’t realize that women were being treated harshly as well by not being given equal rights.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Ncert Physics Book

Presents NCERT Text Books NCERT Text Books: 11th Class Physics About Us: Prep4Civils, website is a part of Sukratu Innovations, a start up by IITians. The main theme of the company is to develop new web services which will help people. P rep4Civils is an online social networking platform intended for the welfare of people who are preparing for Civil services examinations. The whole website was built on open-source platform WordPress. Contact Details: Website: http://www. prep4civils. com/ Email: [email  protected] comDisclaimer and Terms of Use: By following Creative Common License, for the welfare of large student body we are merging all the PDF files provided by NCERT website and redistributing the files by giving proper credit to NCERT website and the redistribution is based on the norms of Creative Common License. We are not commercially distributing the files. People who are downloading these files should not be engaged in any sort of sales or commercial distribution of these files. They can redistribute these copies freely by giving proper credit to the original author, NCERT (http://www. ncert. nic. in/NCERTS/textbook/textbook. tm) and â€Å"Prep4Civils† (http://www. prep4civils. com/) by providing proper hyperlinks of the websites. Any sort of cliches can be addressed at [email  protected] com and proper action will be taken. CONTENTS FOREWORD PREFACE A NOTE FOR THE TEACHER CHAPTER iii v x 1 PHYSICAL WORLD 1. 1 1. 2 1. 3 1. 4 1. 5 What is physics ? Scope and excitement of physics Physics, technology and society Fundamental forces in nature Nature of physical laws CHAPTER 1 2 5 6 10 2 UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS 2. 1 2. 2 2. 3 2. 4 2. 5 2. 6 2. 7 2. 8 2. 9 2. 10 Introduction The international system of units Measurement of length Measurement of massMeasurement of time Accuracy, precision of instruments and errors in measurement Significant figures Dimensions of physical quantities Dimensional formulae and dimensional equations Dimensional analysis and its applications CHAPTER 16 16 18 21 22 22 27 31 31 32 3 MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE 3. 1 3. 2 3. 3 3. 4 3. 5 3. 6 3. 7 Introduction Position, path length and displacement Average velocity and average speed Instantaneous velocity and speed Acceleration Kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated motion Relative velocity CHAPTER 39 39 42 43 45 47 51 4 MOTION IN A PLANE 4. 1 4. 2 4. 3 4. 4 4. 5 IntroductionScalars and vectors Multiplication of vectors by real numbers Addition and subtraction of vectors – graphical method Resolution of vectors 65 65 67 67 69 CK xii 4. 6 4. 7 4. 8 4. 9 4. 10 4. 11 Vector addition – analytical method Motion in a plane Motion in a plane with constant acceleration Relative velocity in two dimensions Projectile motion Uniform circular motion CHAPTER 71 72 75 76 77 79 5 LAWS OF MOTION 5. 1 5. 2 5. 3 5. 4 5. 5 5. 6 5. 7 5. 8 5. 9 5. 10 5. 11 Introduction Aristotle’s fallacy The law of inertia Newton’s first law of motion Newton ’s second law of motion Newton’s third law of motion Conservation of momentumEquilibrium of a particle Common forces in mechanics Circular motion Solving problems in mechanics CHAPTER 89 90 90 91 93 96 98 99 100 104 105 6 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER 6. 1 6. 2 6. 3 6. 4 6. 5 6. 6 6. 7 6. 8 6. 9 6. 10 6. 11 6. 12 Introduction Notions of work and kinetic energy : The work-energy theorem Work Kinetic energy Work done by a variable force The work-energy theorem for a variable force The concept of potential energy The conservation of mechanical energy The potential energy of a spring Various forms of energy : the law of conservation of energy Power Collisions CHAPTER 114 116 116 117 118 119 120 121 123 126 28 129 7 SYSTEM OF PARTICLES AND ROTATIONAL MOTION 7. 1 7. 2 7. 3 7. 4 7. 5 7. 6 7. 7 7. 8 7. 9 7. 10 Introduction Centre of mass Motion of centre of mass Linear momentum of a system of particles Vector product of two vectors Angular velocity and its relation with linear veloci ty Torque and angular momentum Equilibrium of a rigid body Moment of inertia Theorems of perpendicular and parallel axes 141 144 148 149 150 152 154 158 163 164 CK xiii 7. 11 7. 12 7. 13 7. 14 Kinematics of rotational motion about a fixed axis Dynamics of rotational motion about a fixed axis Angular momentum in case of rotations about a fixed axisRolling motion CHAPTER 167 169 171 173 8 GRAVITATION 8. 1 8. 2 8. 3 8. 4 8. 5 8. 6 8. 7 8. 8 8. 9 8. 10 8. 11 8. 12 Introduction Kepler’s laws Universal law of gravitation The gravitational constant Acceleration due to gravity of the earth Acceleration due to gravity below and above the surface of earth Gravitational potential energy Escape speed Earth satellite Energy of an orbiting satellite Geostationary and polar satellites Weightlessness 183 184 185 189 189 190 191 193 194 195 196 197 APPENDICES 203 ANSWERS 219 CK CK CONTENTS FOREWORD PREFACE A NOTE FOR THE TEACHERS CHAPTER iii vii x 9 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS 9. 9. 2 9. 3 9. 4 9. 5 9. 6 9. 7 Introduction Elastic behaviour of solids Stress and strain Hooke’s law Stress-strain curve Elastic moduli Applications of elastic behaviour of materials CHAPTER 231 232 232 234 234 235 240 10 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS 10. 1 10. 2 10. 3 10. 4 10. 5 10. 6 10. 7 Introduction Pressure Streamline flow Bernoulli’s principle Viscosity Reynolds number Surface tension CHAPTER 246 246 253 254 258 260 261 11 THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER 11. 1 11. 2 11. 3 11. 4 11. 5 11. 6 11. 7 11. 8 11. 9 11. 10 Introduction Temperature and heat Measurement of temperature Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperatureThermal expansion Specific heat capacity Calorimetry Change of state Heat transfer Newton’s law of cooling CHAPTER 274 274 275 275 276 280 281 282 286 290 12 THERMODYNAMICS 12. 1 12. 2 Introduction Thermal equilibrium 298 299 CK CK xii 12. 3 12. 4 12. 5 12. 6 12. 7 12. 8 12. 9 12. 10 12. 11 12. 12 12. 13 Zeroth law of thermodynamics Heat, internal ene rgy and work First law of thermodynamics Specific heat capacity Thermodynamic state variables and equation of state Thermodynamic processes Heat engines Refrigerators and heat pumps Second law of thermodynamics Reversible and irreversible processes Carnot engine CHAPTER 300 300 302 03 304 305 308 308 309 310 311 13 KINETIC THEORY 13. 1 13. 2 13. 3 13. 4 13. 5 13. 6 13. 7 Introduction Molecular nature of matter Behaviour of gases Kinetic theory of an ideal gas Law of equipartition of energy Specific heat capacity Mean free path CHAPTER 318 318 320 323 327 328 330 14 OSCILLATIONS 14. 1 14. 2 14. 3 14. 4 14. 5 14. 6 14. 7 14. 8 14. 9 14. 10 Introduction Periodic and oscilatory motions Simple harmonic motion Simple harmonic motion and uniform circular motion Velocity and acceleration in simple harmonic motion Force law for simple harmonic motion Energy in simple harmonic motion Some systems executing SHMDamped simple harmonic motion Forced oscillations and resonance CHAPTER 336 337 339 341 343 345 346 347 351 353 15 WAVES 15. 1 15. 2 15. 3 15. 4 15. 5 15. 6 Introduction Transverse and longitudinal waves Displacement relation in a progressive wave The speed of a travelling wave The principle of superposition of waves Reflection of waves 363 365 367 369 373 374 CK CK xiii 15. 7 15. 8 Beats Doppler effect 379 381 ANSWERS 391 BIBLIOGRAPHY 401 INDEX 403 CK CHAPTER ONE PHYSICAL WORLD 1. 1 WHAT IS PHYSICS ? 1. 1 What is physics ? 1. 2 Scope and excitement of physics 1. 3 Physics, technology and society 1. 4 Fundamental forces in nature 1. Nature of physical laws Summary Exercises Humans have always been curious about the world around them. The night sky with its bright celestial objects has fascinated humans since time immemorial. The regular repetitions of the day and night, the annual cycle of seasons, the eclipses, the tides, the volcanoes, the rainbow have always been a source of wonder. The world has an astonishing variety of materials and a bewildering diversity of life and behaviour. The inquiring and imaginative human mind has responded to the wonder and awe of nature in different ways. One kind of response from the earliest times has been to observe the hysical environment carefully, look for any meaningful patterns and relations in natural phenomena, and build and use new tools to interact with nature. This human endeavour led, in course of time, to modern science and technology. The word Science originates from the Latin verb Scientia meaning ‘to know’. The Sanskrit word Vijnan and the Arabic word Ilm c onvey similar meaning, namely ‘knowledge’. Science, in a broad sense, is as old as human species. The early civilisations of Egypt, India, China, Greece, Mesopotamia and many others made vital contributions to its progress. From the sixteenth century onwards, great strides were made n science in Europe. By the middle of the twentieth century, science had become a truly international enterprise, with many cultures and countries contributing to its rapid growth. What is Science and what is the so-called Scientific Method ? Science is a systematic attempt to understand natural phenomena in as much detail and depth as possible, and use the knowledge so gained to predict, modify and control phenomena. Science is exploring, experimenting and predicting from what we see around us. The curiosity to learn about the world, unravelling the secrets of nature is the first step towards the discovery of science.The scientific method involves several interconnected steps : Systematic observations, controlled experiments, qualitative and 2 quantitative reasoning, mathematical modelling, prediction and verification or falsification of theories. Speculation and conjecture also have a place in science; but ultimately, a scientific theory, to be acceptable, must be verified by relevant observations or experiments. There is much philosophical debate about the nature and method of science that we need not discuss here. The interplay of theory and observation (or experiment) is basic to the progress of science. Science is ever dynamic.There is no ‘final’ theory in science and no unquestioned authority among scientists. As observations improve in detail and precision or experiments yield new results, theories must account for them, if necessary, by introducing modifications. Sometimes the modifications may not be drastic and may lie within the framework of existing theory. For example, when Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) examined the extensive data on planetary motion collected by Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), the planetary circular orbits in heliocentric theory (sun at the centre of the solar system) imagined by Nicolas Copernicus (1473–1543) had to be replaced by elliptical rbits to fit the data better. Occasionally, however, the existing theory is simply unable to explain new observations. This causes a major upheaval in science. In the beginning of the twentieth century, it wa s realised that Newtonian mechanics, till then a very successful theory, could not explain some of the most basic features of atomic phenomena. Similarly, the then accepted wave picture of light failed to explain the photoelectric effect properly. This led to the development of a radically new theory (Quantum Mechanics) to deal with atomic and molecular phenomena. Just as a new experiment may suggest an lternative theoretical model, a theoretical advance may suggest what to look for in some experiments. The result of experiment of scattering of alpha particles by gold foil, in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford (1871–1937) established the nuclear model of the atom, which then became the basis of the quantum theory of hydrogen atom given in 1913 by Niels Bohr (1885–1962). On the other hand, the concept of antiparticle was first introduced theoretically by Paul Dirac (1902–1984) in 1930 and confirmed two years later by the experimental discovery of positron (antielectron) by Carl Anderson. P HYSICS Physics is a basic discipline in the category f Natural Sciences, which also includes other disciplines like Chemistry and Biology. The word Physics comes from a Greek word meaning nature. Its Sanskrit equivalent is Bhautiki that is used to refer to the study of the physical world. A precise definition of this discipline is neither possible nor necessary. We can broadly describe physics as a study of the basic laws of nature and their manifestation in different natural phenomena. The scope of physics is described briefly in the next section. Here we remark on two principal thrusts in physics : unification and reduction. In Physics, we attempt to explain diverse hysical phenomena in terms of a few concepts and laws. The effort is to see the physical world as manifestation of some universal laws in different domains and conditions. For example, the same law of gravitation (given by Newton) describes the fall of an apple to the ground, the motion of the moon around the earth and the motion of planets around the sun. Similarly, the basic laws of electromagnetism (Maxwell’s equations) govern all electric and magnetic phenomena. The attempts to unify fundamental forces of nature (section 1. 4) reflect this same quest for unification. A related effort is to derive the properties of a igger, more complex, system from the properties and interactions of its constituent simpler parts. This approach is called reductionism and is at the heart of physics. For example, the subject of thermodynamics, developed in the nineteenth century, deals with bulk systems in terms of macroscopic quantities such as temperature, internal energy, entropy, etc. Subsequently, the subjects of kinetic theory and statistical mechanics interpreted these quantities in terms of the properties of the molecular constituents of the bulk system. In particular, the temperature was seen to be related to the average kinetic energy of molecules of the system. . 2 SCOPE AND EXCITEMENT OF PHYSICS We can get some idea of the scope of physics by looking at its various sub-disciplines. Basically, there are two domains of interest : macroscopic and microscopic. The macroscopic domain includes phenomena at the laboratory, terrestrial and astronomical scales. The microscopic domain includes atomic, molecular and nuclear P HYSICAL WORLD phenomena*. Classical Physics deals mainly with macroscopic phenomena and includes subjects like Mechanics, Electrodynamics, Optics a nd T hermodynamics . Mechanics founded on Newton’s laws of motion and the law of gravitation is concerned with the motion (or quilibrium) of particles, rigid and deformable bodies, and general systems of particles. The propulsion of a rocket by a jet of ejecting gases, propagation of water waves or sound waves in air, the equilibrium of a bent rod under a load, etc. , are problems of mechanics. Electrodynamics deals with electric and magnetic phenomena associated with charged and magnetic bodies. Its basic laws were given by Coulomb, Oersted, Fig. 1. 1 chemical process, etc. , are problems of interest in thermodynamics. The microscopic domain of physics deals with the constitution and structure of matter at the minute scales of atoms and nuclei (and even ower scales of length) and their interaction with different probes such as electrons, photons and other elementary particles. Classical physics is inadequate to handle this domain and Quantum Theory is currently accepted as the proper framework for explaining microscopic phenomena. Overall, the edifice of physics is beautiful and imposing and you will appreciate it more as you pursue the subject. Theory and experiment go hand in hand in physics and help each other’s progress. The alpha scattering experiments of Rutherford gave the nuclear model of the atom. Ampere and Faraday, and encapsulated by Maxwell in his famous set of equations.The motion of a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field, the respons e of a circuit to an ac voltage (signal), the working of an antenna, the propagation of radio waves in the ionosphere, etc. , are problems of electrodynamics. Optics deals with the phenomena involving light. The working of telescopes and microscopes, colours exhibited by thin films, etc. , are topics in optics. Thermodynamics, in contrast to mechanics, does not deal with the motion of bodies as a whole. Rather, it deals with systems in macroscopic equilibrium and is concerned with changes in internal energy, temperature, entropy, etc. , of the ystem through external work and transfer of heat. The efficiency of heat engines and refrigerators, the direction of a physical or * 3 You can now see that the scope of physics is truly vast. It covers a tremendous range of magnitude of physical quantities like length, mass, time, energy, etc. At one end, it studies phenomena at the very small scale of length -14 (10 m or even less) involving electrons, protons, etc. ; at the other end, it dea ls with astronomical phenomena at the scale of galaxies or even the entire universe whose extent is of the order of 26 10 m. The two length scales differ by a factor of 40 10 or even more.The range of time scales can be obtained by dividing the length scales by the –22 speed of light : 10 s to 1018 s. The range of masses goes from, say, 10–30 kg (mass of an 55 electron) to 10 kg (mass of known observable universe). Terrestrial phenomena lie somewhere in the middle of this range. Recently, the domain intermediate between the macroscopic and the microscopic (the so-called mesoscopic physics), dealing with a few tens or hundreds of atoms, has emerged as an exciting field of research. 4 Physics is exciting in many ways. To some people the excitement comes from the elegance and universality of its basic theories, from the fact that few basic concepts and laws can explain phenomena covering a large range of magnitude of physical quantities. To some others, the challenge in c arrying out imaginative new experiments to unlock the secrets of nature, to verify or refute theories, is thrilling. Applied physics is equally demanding. Application and exploitation of physical laws to make useful devices is the most interesting and exciting part and requires great ingenuity and persistence of effort. What lies behind the phenomenal progress of physics in the last few centuries? Great progress usually accompanies changes in our basic perceptions.First, it was realised that for scientific progress, only qualitative thinking, though no doubt important, is not enough. Quantitative measurement is central to the growth of science, especially physics, because the laws of nature happen to be expressible in precise mathematical equations. The second most important insight was that the basic laws of physics are universal — the same laws apply in widely different contexts. Lastly, the strategy of approximation turned out to be very successful. Most observed phenomena in daily life are rather complicated manifestations of the basic laws. Scientists recognised the importance f extracting the essential features of a phenomenon from its less significant aspects. It is not practical to take into account all the complexities of a phenomenon in one go. A good strategy is to focus first on the essential features, discover the basic principles and then introduce corrections to build a more refined theory of the phenomenon. For example, a stone and a feather dropped from the same height do not reach the ground at the same time. The reason is that the essential aspect of the phenomenon, namely free fall under gravity, is complicated by the presence of air resistance. To get the law of free all under gravity, it is better to create a situation wherein the air resistance is negligible. We can, for example, let the stone and the feather fall through a long evacuated tube. In that case, the two objects will fall almost at the same rate, giving the basic law t hat acceleration due to gravity is independent of the mass of the object. With the basic law thus found, we can go back to the feather, introduce corrections due to air resistance, modify the existing theory and try to build a more realistic P HYSICS Hypothesis, axioms and models One should not think that everything can be proved with physics and mathematics.All physics, and also mathematics, is based on assumptions, each of which is variously called a hypothesis or axiom or postulate, etc. For example, the universal law of gravitation proposed by Newton is an assumption or hypothesis, which he proposed out of his ingenuity. Before him, there were several observations, experiments and data, on the motion of planets around the sun, motion of the moon around the earth, pendulums, bodies falling towards the earth etc. Each of these required a separate explanation, which was more or less qualitative. What the universal law of gravitation says is that, if we assume that any two odies in the universe attract each other with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them, then we can explain all these observations in one stroke. It not only explains these phenomena, it also allows us to predict the results of future experiments. A hypothesis is a supposition without assuming that it is true. It would not be fair to ask anybody to prove the universal law of gravitation, because it cannot be proved. It can be verified and substantiated by experiments and observations. An axiom is a self-evident truth while a model s a theory proposed to explain observed phenomena. But you need not worry at this stage about the nuances in using these words. For example, next year you will learn about Bohr’s model of hydrogen atom, in which Bohr assumed that an electron in the hydrogen atom follows certain rules (postutates). Why did he do that? There was a large amount of spectroscopic data before him whic h no other theory could explain. So Bohr said that if we assume that an atom behaves in such a manner, we can explain all these things at once. Einstein’s special theory of relativity is also based on two postulates, the constancy of the speed f electromagnetic radiation and the validity of physical laws in all inertial frame of reference. It would not be wise to ask somebody to prove that the speed of light in vacuum is constant, independent of the source or observer. In mathematics too, we need axioms and hypotheses at every stage. Euclid’s statement that parallel lines never meet, is a hypothesis. This means that if we assume this statement, we can explain several properties of straight lines and two or three dimensional figures made out of them. But if you don’t assume it, you are free to use a different axiom and get a new geometry, as has indeed happened in he past few centuries and decades. P HYSICAL WORLD 5 theory of objects falling to the earth under gr avity. 1. 3 PHYSICS, TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY The connection between physics, technology and society can be seen in many examples. The discipline of thermodynamics arose from the need to understand and improve the working of heat engines. The steam engine, as we know, is inseparable from the Industrial Revolution in England in the eighteenth century, which had great impact on the course of human civilisation. Sometimes technology gives rise to new physics; at other times physics generates new technology.An example of the latter is the wireless communication technology that followed the discovery of the basic laws of electricity and magnetism in the nineteenth century. The applications of physics are not always easy to foresee. As late as 1933, the great physicist Ernest Rutherford had dismissed the possibility of tapping energy from atoms. But only a few years later, in 1938, Hahn and Meitner discovered the phenomenon of neutron-induced fission of uranium, which would serve as the bas is of nuclear power reactors and nuclear weapons. Yet another important example of physics giving rise to technology is the silicon chip’ that triggered the computer revolution in the last three decades of the twentieth century. A most significant area to which physics has and will contribute is the development of alternative energy resources. The fossil fuels of the planet are dwindling fast and there is an urgent need to discover new and affordable sources of energy. Considerable progress has already been made in this direction (for example, in conversion of solar energy, geothermal energy, etc. , into electricity), but much more is still to be accomplished. Table1. 1 lists some of the great physicists, their major contribution and the country of rigin. You will appreciate from this table the multi-cultural, international character of the scientific endeavour. Table 1. 2 lists some important technologies and the principles of physics they are based on. Obviously, these tabl es are not exhaustive. We urge you to try to add many names and items to these tables with the help of your teachers, good books and websites on science. You will find that this exercise is very educative and also great fun. And, assuredly, it will never end. The progress of science is unstoppable! Physics is the study of nature and natural phenomena. Physicists try to discover the rules hat are operating in nature, on the basis of observations, experimentation and analysis. Physics deals with certain basic rules/laws governing the natural world. What is the nature Table 1. 1 Some physicists from different countries of the world and their major contributions Name Major contribution/discovery Country of Origin Archimedes Principle of buoyancy; Principle of the lever Greece Galileo Galilei Law of inertia Italy Christiaan Huygens Wave theory of light Holland Isaac Newton Universal law of gravitation; Laws of motion; Reflecting telescope U. K. Michael Faraday Laws of electromagnetic ind uction U. K. James Clerk MaxwellElectromagnetic theory; Light-an electromagnetic wave U. K. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz Generation of electromagnetic waves Germany J. C. Bose Ultra short radio waves India W. K. Roentgen X-rays Germany J. J. Thomson Electron U. K. Marie Sklodowska Curie Discovery of radium and polonium; Studies on Poland natural radioactivity Albert Einstein Explanation of photoelectric effect; Theory of relativity Germany 6 P HYSICS Name Major contribution/discovery Country of Origin Victor Francis Hess Cosmic radiation Austria R. A. Millikan Measurement of electronic charge U. S. A. Ernest Rutherford Nuclear model of atom New Zealand Niels BohrQuantum model of hydrogen atom Denmark C. V. Raman Inelastic scattering of light by molecules India Louis Victor de Borglie Wave nature of matter France M. N. Saha Thermal ionisation India S. N. Bose Quantum statistics India Wolfgang Pauli Exclusion principle Austria Enrico Fermi Controlled nuclear fission Italy Werner Heisenberg Q uantum mechanics; Uncertainty principle Germany Paul Dirac Relativistic theory of electron; Quantum statistics U. K. Edwin Hubble Expanding universe U. S. A. Ernest Orlando Lawrence Cyclotron U. S. A. James Chadwick Neutron U. K. Hideki Yukawa Theory of nuclear forces Japan Homi Jehangir BhabhaCascade process of cosmic radiation India Lev Davidovich Landau Theory of condensed matter; Liquid helium Russia S. Chandrasekhar Chandrasekhar limit, structure and evolution of stars India John Bardeen Transistors; Theory of super conductivity U. S. A. C. H. Townes Maser; Laser U. S. A. Abdus Salam Unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions Pakistan of physical laws? We shall now discuss the nature of fundamental forces and the laws that govern the diverse phenomena of the physical world. 1. 4 FUNDAMENTAL FORCES IN NATURE* We all have an intuitive notion of force. In our experience, force is needed to push, carry or hrow objects, deform or break them. We also experience the impact o f forces on us, like when a moving object hits us or we are in a merry-goround. Going from this intuitive notion to the proper scientific concept of force is not a trivial matter. Early thinkers like Aristotle had wrong * ideas about it. The correct notion of force was arrived at by Isaac Newton in his famous laws of motion. He also gave an explicit form for the force for gravitational attraction between two bodies. We shall learn these matters in subsequent chapters. In the macroscopic world, besides the gravitational force, we encounter several kinds f forces: muscular force, contact forces between bodies, friction (which is also a contact force parallel to the surfaces in contact), the forces exerted by compressed or elongated springs and taut strings and ropes (tension), the force of buoyancy and viscous force when solids are in Sections 1. 4 and 1. 5 contain several ideas that you may not grasp fully in your first reading. However, we advise you to read them carefully to develo p a feel for some basic aspects of physics. These are some of the areas which continue to occupy the physicists today. P HYSICAL WORLD 7 Table 1. 2 Link between technology and physics TechnologyScientific principle(s) Steam engine Laws of thermodynamics Nuclear reactor Controlled nuclear fission Radio and Television Generation, propagation and detection of electromagnetic waves Computers Digital logic Lasers Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation Production of ultra high magnetic fields Superconductivity Rocket propulsion Newton’s laws of motion Electric generator Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction Hydroelectric power Conversion of gravitational potential energy into electrical energy Aeroplane Bernoulli’s principle in fluid dynamics Particle accelerators Motion of charged particles in electromagnetic ields Sonar Reflection of ultrasonic waves Optical fibres Total internal reflection of light Non-reflecting coatings Thin film optical in terference Electron microscope Wave nature of electrons Photocell Photoelectric effect Fusion test reactor (Tokamak) Magnetic confinement of plasma Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) Detection of cosmic radio waves Bose-Einstein condensate Trapping and cooling of atoms by laser beams and magnetic fields. contact with fluids, the force due to pressure of a fluid, the force due to surface tension of a liquid, and so on. There are also forces involving charged nd magnetic bodies. In the microscopic domain again, we have electric and magnetic forces, nuclear forces involving protons and neutrons, interatomic and intermolecular forces, etc. We shall get familiar with some of these forces in later parts of this course. A great insight of the twentieth century physics is that these different forces occurring in different contexts actually arise from only a small number of fundamental forces in nature. For example, the elastic spring force arises due to the net attraction/repulsion betw een the neighbouring atoms of the spring when the spring is elongated/compressed. This net ttraction/repulsion can be traced to the (unbalanced) sum of electric forces between the charged constituents of the atoms. In principle, this means that the laws for ‘derived’ forces (such as spring force, friction) are not independent of the laws of fundamental forces in nature. The origin of these derived forces is, however, very complex. At the present stage of our understanding, we know of four fundamental forces in nature, which are described in brief here : 8 P HYSICS Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Albert Einstein, born in Ulm, Germany in 1879, is universally regarded as one of the greatest physicists of all time.His astonishing scientific career began with the publication of three path-breaking papers in 1905. In the first paper, he introduced the notion of light quanta (now called photons) and used it to explain the features of photoelectric effect that the classical wave th eory of radiation could not account for. In the second paper, he developed a theory of Brownian motion that was confirmed experimentally a few years later and provided a convincing evidence of the atomic picture of matter. The third paper gave birth to the special theory of relativity that made Einstein a legend in his own life time.In the next decade, he explored the consequences of his new theory which included, among other things, the mass-energy equivalence enshrined in his famous equation E = mc2. He also created the general version of relativity (The General Theory of Relativity), which is the modern theory of gravitation. Some of Einstein’s most significant later contributions are: the notion of stimulated emission introduced in an alternative derivation of Planck’s blackbody radiation law, static model of the universe which started modern cosmology, quantum statistics of a gas of massive bosons, and a critical analysis of the foundations of quantum mechanics.Th e year 2005 was declared as International Year of Physics, in recognition of Einstein’s monumental contribution to physics, in year 1905, describing revolutionary scientific ideas that have since influenced all of modern physics. 1. 4. 1 Gravitational Force The gravitational force is the force of mutual attraction between any two objects by virtue of their masses. It is a universal force. Every object experiences this force due to every other object in the universe. All objects on the earth, for example, experience the force of gravity due to the earth. In particular, gravity governs the motion of the moon and artificial satellites around he earth, motion of the earth and planets around the sun, and, of course, the motion of bodies falling to the earth. It plays a key role in the large-scale phenomena of the universe, such as formation and evolution of stars, galaxies and galactic clusters. 1. 4. 2 Electromagnetic Force Electromagnetic force is the force between charged parti cles. In the simpler case when charges are at rest, the force is given by Coulomb’s law : attractive for unlike charges and repulsive for like charges. Charges in motion produce magnetic effects and a magnetic field gives rise to a force on a moving charge. Electric nd magnetic effects are, in general, inseparable – hence the name electromagnetic force. Like the gravitational force, electromagnetic force acts over large distances and does not need any intervening medium. It is enormously strong compared to gravity. The electric force between two protons, for example, 36 is 10 times the gravitational force between them, for any fixed distance. Matter, as we know, consists of elementary charged constituents like electrons and protons. Since the electromagnetic force is so much stronger than the gravitational force, it dominates all phenomena at atomic and molecular scales. (The other two forces, as we hall see, operate only at nuclear scales. ) Thus it is mainly the elec tromagnetic force that governs the structure of atoms and molecules, the dynamics of chemical reactions and the mechanical, thermal and other properties of materials. It underlies the macroscopic forces like ‘tension’, ‘friction’, ‘normal force’, ‘spring force’, etc. Gravity is always attractive, while electromagnetic force can be attractive or repulsive. Another way of putting it is that mass comes only in one variety (there is no negative mass), but charge comes in two varieties : positive and negative charge. This is what makes all the difference.Matter is mostly electrically neutral (net charge is zero). Thus, electric force is largely zero and gravitational force dominates terrestrial phenomena. Electric force manifests itself in atmosphere where the atoms are ionised and that leads to lightning. P HYSICAL WORLD 9 Satyendranath Bose (1894-1974) Satyendranath Bose, born in Calcutta in 1894, is among the great Indian physicists who made a fundamental contribution to the advance of science in the twentieth century. An outstanding student throughout, Bose started his career in 1916 as a lecturer in physics in Calcutta University; five years later he joined Dacca University.Here in 1924, in a brilliant flash of insight, Bose gave a new derivation of Planck’s law, treating radiation as a gas of photons and employing new statistical methods of counting of photon states. He wrote a short paper on the subject and sent it to Einstein who immediately recognised its great significance, translated it in German and forwarded it for publication. Einstein then applied the same method to a gas of molecules. The key new conceptual ingredient in Bose’s work was that the particles were regarded as indistinguishable, a radical departure from the assumption that underlies the classical MaxwellBoltzmann statistics.It was soon realised that the new Bose-Einstein statistics was applicable to particles with integers spins, and a new quantum statistics (Fermi-Dirac statistics) was needed for particles with half integers spins satisfying Pauli’s exclusion principle. Particles with integers spins are now known as bosons in honour of Bose. An important consequence of Bose-Einstein statistics is that a gas of molecules below a certain temperature will undergo a phase transition to a state where a large fraction of atoms populate the same lowest energy state.Some seventy years were to pass before the pioneering ideas of Bose, developed further by Einstein, were dramatically confirmed in the observation of a new state of matter in a dilute gas of ultra cold alkali atoms – the Bose-Eintein condensate. If we reflect a little, the enormous strength of the electromagnetic force compared to gravity is evident in our daily life. When we hold a book in our hand, we are balancing the gravitational force on the book due to the huge mass of the earth by the ‘normal force’ provided by our hand. The latter is nothing but the net electromagnetic force between the charged constituents of our hand and he book, at the surface in contact. If electromagnetic force were not intrinsically so much stronger than gravity, the hand of the strongest man would crumble under the weight of a feather ! Indeed, to be consistent, in that circumstance, we ourselves would crumble under our own weight ! 1. 4. 3 Strong Nuclear Force The strong nuclear force binds protons and neutrons in a nucleus. It is evident that without some attractive force, a nucleus will be unstable due to the electric repulsion between its protons. This attractive force cannot be gravitational since force of gravity is negligible compared to the electric force.A new basic force must, therefore, be invoked. The strong nuclear force is the strongest of all fundamental forces, about 100 times the electromagnetic force in strength. It is charge-independent and acts equally between a proton and a proton, a neutron a nd a neutron, and a proton and a neutron. Its range is, however, extremely small, –15 of about nuclear dimensions (10 m). It is responsible for the stability of nuclei. The electron, it must be noted, does not experience this force. Recent developments have, however, indicated that protons and neutrons are built out of still more elementary constituents called quarks. . 4. 4 Weak Nuclear Force The weak nuclear force appears only in certain nuclear processes such as the ? -decay of a nucleus. In ? -decay, the nucleus emits an electron and an uncharged particle called neutrino. The weak nuclear force is not as weak as the gravitational force, but much weaker than the strong nuclear and electromagnetic forces. The range of weak nuclear force is exceedingly small, of the order of 10-16 m. 1. 4. 5 Towards Unification of Forces We remarked in section 1. 1 that unification is a basic quest in physics. Great advances in physics often amount to unification of different 10 P HYSICS Tab le 1. Fundamental forces of nature Name Relative strength Range Operates among Gravitational force 10 –39 Infinite All objects in the universe Weak nuclear force 10–13 Very short, Sub-nuclear size ( ? –16 m) 10 Some elementary particles, particularly electron and neutrino Electromagnetic force 10–2 Infinite Charged particles Strong nuclear force 1 Short, nuclear size ( ? –15 m) 10 Nucleons, heavier elementary particles theories and domains. Newton unified terrestrial and celestial domains under a common law of gravitation. The experimental discoveries of Oersted and Faraday showed that electric and magnetic phenomena are in general nseparable. Maxwell unified electromagnetism and optics with the discovery that light is an electromagnetic wave. Einstein attempted to unify gravity and electromagnetism but could not succeed in this venture. But this did not deter physicists from zealously pursuing the goal of unification of forces. Recent decades have seen much progress on this front. The electromagnetic and the weak nuclear force have now been unified and are seen as aspects of a single ‘electro-weak’ force. What this unification actually means cannot be explained here. Attempts have been (and are being) made to unify the electro-weak and the trong force and even to unify the gravitational force with the rest of the fundamental forces. Many of these ideas are still speculative and inconclusive. Table 1. 4 summarises some of the milestones in the progress towards unification of forces in nature. 1. 5 NATURE OF PHYSICAL LAWS Physicists explore the universe. Their investigations, based on scientific processes, range from particles that are smaller than atoms in size to stars that are very far away. In addition to finding the facts by observation and experimentation, physicists attempt to discover the laws that summarise (often as mathematical quations) these facts. In any physical phenomenon governed by different forc es, several quantities may change with time. A remarkable fact is that some special physical quantities, however, remain constant in time. They are the conserved quantities of nature. Understanding these conservation principles is very important to describe the observed phenomena quantitatively. For motion under an external conservative force, the total mechanical energy i. e. the sum of kinetic and potential energy of a body is a constant. The familiar example is the free fall of an object under gravity. Both the kinetic energy

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Outline the case for Votes at 16

In Modern time we have seen the voting system become fairer and simpler in order to incorporate all members of society. From giving Women the right to vote many citizens have believed that the voting age should in fact be lowered from the current standard EU Law of 18, to the minor age of 16. The idea of this vote has been popular among citizens however it seems to be less popular among the older generations. Firstly if young people were given the opportunity to vote then it would allow them to engage more within their society. So in theory if more teenagers feel that they are part of the community then we could expect to see a drastic fall in national crime rates for this age bracket. It makes sense for young people to develop a political opinion whilst they are young and it would ensure that the vote represents a wider society therefore making the political system fairer. At the age of 16 many young people have completed their education and therefore it would make sense for them to be allowed to vote. By the age of 16 they would have been able to form options and does Article 21 of the UN Human Rights list state that every citizen (regardless of age) has the right for their voice to be heard and for action to be taken accordingly. By the age of 16 young people can enrol themselves to serve HM Armed Forces. Therefore if a 16 year old can serve their country, be offering their life then why are they not allowed to vote? Stopping 16 year olds from voting could be classified as discrimination, for a particular group of society are being shunned away due to personal characteristics. Currently a 16 year old can be tried in an Adult Court of Law and sentenced to terms in Adult Prisons. This seems unfair if teenagers do not have the right or ability to question acts of law, in means of voting in a general election. The voice of young people is being shunned away. At the age of 16 the law provides teenagers with the right to leave school and move away from home. These abilities are far more serious than voting due to the fact that the will have huge effects on the person’s later life. I believe that society has rejected the idea of students voting due to the fact that they are being stereotypical. In my opinion society look upon teenagers as outcast thugs whom destroy society. As we begin a chapter in modern politics it is time that we leave these views behind and accept that in fact a huge majority of 16 year olds are in fact strong and educated members of society. Many students at the age of 16 will begin a new chapter into adulthood consequently these students will go out into the world of work. Despite not being able to vote the students will still have to pay taxes! This seems unjust when you consider that they do not have the ability to vote for what they believe to be the fairer tax policy. Young people are the future of this country and therefore they should have the ability to input what they want they would like their society to be like within the future. If a student was to vote at the age of 16 then by the age of 20 a government would have already have shaped their future. I believe that a 16 year old has a stronger right to vote over perhaps a 70 year old for they are the future of tomorrow. It is amazing that despite years of education and a number of new rights 16 year olds can not vote in an election, these seems unjust considering that they are subject to the laws that Parliament makes and they would be subject to paying tax if they were to work. The exclusion of 16 year olds from the ballot boxes is discrimination and a deprivation of a basic international human right.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Gymnastics For a Healthy Lifestyle Essay Example

Gymnastics For a Healthy Lifestyle Essay Example Gymnastics For a Healthy Lifestyle Paper Gymnastics For a Healthy Lifestyle Paper There are many health conscience people today. Many of these people also enjoy working out in the gym. There are three groups of people that go to the gym. These groups are OThe one timersO, OThe buddies onlyO, and OThe dedicatedO. There is the group of people who are considered OThe one timersO. This is the group of people who are trying to be health conscience. Often this is the group of people who make it a New Year resolution to make there life healthy. There first step is to get a membership at a gym. The first step is usually followed through. OThe one timersO often make it to the gym the day after they join and do not return due to the lack of motivation. Then there is the group who are known as OThe buddies onlyO. These are the people who join a gym only if they know someone who has a membership at the same gym. This is often due to the thought that working out alone would not be motivating and boring. OThe buddies onlyO is a large majority of those who are at a gym. Many people en joy working out with a companion and will only go to the gym with another ObuddyO. The most health conscience group of all is OThe dedicatedO. This is the group of people who will go : to the gym no matter what conditions. These people have a set schedul e to go to the gym in their life. OThe dedicatedO have plenty of motivation and could care less to go with a ObuddyO. This is often the most admired group in the gym. Being health conscience seems like an easy part of life but not everyone can be Odedic atedO. When it comes to going to the gym there are many excuses that a person may have. Within the three groups there are only two groups that people want to belong to. These two groups would be OThe buddies onlyO, and OThe dedicatedO.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Dates and Cities of the Olympic Games Throughout History

Dates and Cities of the Olympic Games Throughout History The Modern Olympic Games began in 1896, 1,503 years after the ancient Olympics were abolished. Held every four years- with a few exceptions (during  World War I  and  World War II)- these Games have brought camaraderie across borders and around the world. The athletes within each of these Olympic Games have undergone hardship and struggle. Some overcame poverty, while others overcame sickness and injury. Yet each gave their all and competed to see who was the fastest, strongest and best in the world. Discover the unique story of each of the Olympic Games. 1896 Athens Olympics The first Modern Olympic Games took place in Athens, Greece during the first weeks of April 1896. The 241 athletes who competed represented only 14 countries and wore their athletic club uniforms instead of national uniforms. Of the 14 countries in attendance, eleven have officially been declared in awards records: Australia, Austria, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States.   1900 Paris Olympics The second Modern Olympic Games took place in Paris from May to October 1900 as part of the World Exhibition. The games were riddled with disorganization and were under-publicized. 997 athletes from 24 countries competed.   1904 St. Louis Olympics The  Games of the III Olympiad were held in St. Louis, Mo. from August to  September 1904. Due to tensions from the  Russo-Japanese War and complications in getting to the United States, only 62 of the 650 athletes who competed came from outside North America. Only  12 to 15 nations were represented.   Unofficial 1906 Athens Olympics Intended to reinvigorate interest in the Olympic Games after the 1900 and 1904 games yielded little fanfare, the Athens Games of 1906 were the first and only Intercalated Games, which had been meant to exist every four years (between regular Games) and only take place in Athens, Greece.  The president of the Modern Olympics declared the 1906 Games unofficial after the fact.   1908 London Olympics Originally slated for Rome, the fourth official Olympic Games was moved to London in the wake of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. These games were the first to feature an opening ceremony and considered the most organized yet.   1912 Stockholm Olympics The fifth official Olympic Games featured the use of electric timing devices and a public address system for the first time. Over 2,500 athletes competed representing 28 countries. These games are still heralded as one of the most organized to date.   The 1916 Olympics Due to rising tensions of World War I, the Games were canceled. They were originally scheduled for Berlin.   1920 Antwerp Olympics The VII Olympiad took place immediately after World War I, resulting in several countries decimated by the war not being able to compete. These Games marked the first appearance of the Olympic flag. 1924 Paris Olympics At the request and honor of retiring IOC president and founder  Pierre de  Coubertin, the  VIII Olympiad was held in his home city of Paris from May to July 1924. The first Olympic Village and Olympic Closing Ceremony marked new features of these Games.   1928 Amsterdam Olympics The IX Olympiad featured several new games, including gymnastics for women and mens track and field events, but most notably the IOC added the Olympics Torch and lighting ceremonies to the Games repertoire this year.  3,000 athletes from  46 countries participated.   1932 Los Angeles Olympics With the world currently experiencing the effects of the Great Depression, traveling to California for the X Olympiad seemed insurmountable, resulting in low response rates from countries invited. Domestic ticket sales also did poorly despite a small bump from celebrities who volunteered to entertain the crowds. Only 1,300 athletes participated, representing 37 countries.   1936 Berlin Olympics Without knowing Hilter would rise to power, the IOC awarded Berlin the Games in 1931.  This sparked international debate about boycotting the Games, but 49 countries ended up competing. These were the first televised games.   The Olympics in 1940 and 1944 Originally slated for  Tokyo, Japan, threats to boycott due to Japans war-mongering and Japans concern the Games would distract from their military goal led to the IOC  awarding  Helsinki, Finland the Games. Unfortunately, due to the outbreak of WWII in 1939, the games were canceled altogether. The IOC did not schedule a 1944 Olympic Games because of World War IIs continued devastation around the world.   1948 London Olympics Despite much debate over whether to continue the Games after World War II, the XIV Olympiad was held in London from July to August 1948 with a few post-war modifications. Japan and Germany, the aggressors of WWII, were not invited to compete. The Soviet Union, though invited, declined to participate.   1952 Helsinki Olympics The XV Olympiad in Helsinki, Finland saw the addition of the Soviet Union,  Israel, and the Peoples Republic of China to countries competing.  The Soviets set up their own Olympic Village for Eastern Bloc athletes and a feeling of east versus west mentality permeated the atmosphere of these Games.   1956 Melbourne Olympics These games were held in November and December as the first Games to take place in the Southern Hemisphere. Egypt, Iraq, and Lebanon protest the Games because of Israels invasion of Egypt and the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland boycotted because of the Soviet Unions invasion of Budapest, Hungary.   1960 Rome Olympics The XVII Olympiad in Rome returned the Games to their origin country for the first time in over 50 years due to the relocation of the 1908 Games. It was also the first time the Games were fully televised and the first time the Olympic Anthem was used. This was the last time South Africa was allowed to compete for 32 years (until apartheid ended).   1964 Tokyo Olympics The  XVIII Olympiad marked the first use of computers to keep results of competitions and the first games South Africa was barred from for its racist policy of apartheid.  5,000 athletes competed from 93 countries.  Indonesia and  North Korea did not participate.   1968 Mexico City The Games of the XIX Olympiad were marred by political unrest. 10 days before the Opening Ceremony,  the Mexican army shot over 1,000 student protestors, killing 267 of them. The Games continued with little comment on the issue, and during an award ceremony for winning Gold and Bronze for the 200-meter race, two U.S. athletes raised a single black-gloved hand in salute to the Black Power movement, resulting in being barred from the Games.   1972 Munich Olympics The XX Olympiad is most remembered for the Palestinian terrorist attack that resulted in the death of 11 Israeli athletes. Despite this, the Opening Ceremonies continued a day later than scheduled and 7,000 athletes from 122 countries competed.   1976 Montreal Olympics 26 African countries boycotted the XXI Olympiad due to New Zealand playing independent rugby games against still-apartheid South Africa in the years leading up to the 1976 Games.  Accusations (mostly unproven) were waged against several athletes suspected of using anabolic steroids to enhance performance. 6,000 athletes competed representing only 88 countries.   1980 Moscow Olympics The XXII Olympiad marks the first and only Games to take place in Eastern Europe.  65 countries boycotted the games due to the Soviet Unions war in Afghanistan.  An Olympic Boycott Games known as the Liberty Bell Classic was held at the same time in Philadelphia to host competitors from those countries who boycotted.   1984 Los Angeles Olympics In response to the United States boycott of the 1980 Moscow Games, the Soviet Union and 13  other countries boycotted the Los Angeles-based XXIII Olympiad.  These Games also saw the return of China for the first time since 1952.   1988 Seoul Olympics Angered that the IOC did not nominate them to co-host the Games of the XXIV Olympiad, North Korea attempted to rally countries in a boycott but only succeeded in convincing allies  Ethiopia, Cuba, and Nicaragua. These Games marked a return to their international popularity. 159 countries competed, represented by 8,391 athletes.   1992 Barcelona Olympics Because of a ruling in 1994 by the IOC to make the Olympic Games (including Winter Games) occur in alternating even-numbered years, this was the last year both Summer and Winter Olympic Games took place in the same year.  It was also the first since 1972 to be unaffected by boycotts.  9,365 athletes competed, representing 169 countries. Nations of the former Soviet Union joined under The Unified  Team consisting of 12 of the former 15 republics.   1996 Atlanta Olympics The XXVI Olympiad marked the centennial of the Games founding in 1896.  was the first to occur without government support, which led to a commercialization of the Games. A pipe bomb that exploded in  Atlantas Olympic Park killed two people, but motive and perpetrator were never determined. A record 197 countries and 10,320 athletes competed.   2000 Sydney Olympics Praised as one of the best games in Olympic history, the XXVII Olympiad played host to 199 countries and was relatively unaffected by the controversy of any type.  The United States earned the most medals, followed by Russia, China, and Australia.   2004 Athens Olympics Security and terrorism were at the center of preparation for the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens, Greece due to the rising international conflict in the wake of the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001.  These Games saw the rise of Michael Phelps, who earned 6 gold medals in swimming events.   2008 Beijing Olympics Despite protests for host Chinas actions in Tibet, the XXIX Olympiad continued as planned. 43 world and 132 Olympic records were set by 10,942 athletes representing 302 National Olympics Committees (countries organized into one represented team). Of those who competed in the Games, an impressive 86 countries medaled (earned at least one medal) at these Games.   2012 London Olympics Becoming the hosts with the most, Londons XXX Olympiad marked the most times a single city has hosted the Games (1908, 1948 and 2012).  Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time with additions from the year totaling 22 career Olympic medals. The United States earned the most medals, with China and Great Britain taking second and third place.   2016 Rio De Janeiro Olympics The XXXI Olympiad marked the first competition for new entrants  South Sudan, Kosovo, and the Refugee Olympic Team.  Rio is the first South American country to host the Olympic Games.  Instability of the countrys government, pollution of its bay, and a Russian doping scandal-marred preparation for the Games. The United States earned its 1,000th Olympic medal during these games and earned the most of the XXIV Olympiad, followed by Great Britain and China. Brazil finished 7th overall. 2020 Tokyo Olympics The IOC awarded Tokyo, Japan the XXXII Olympiad on September 7, 2013. Istanbul and Madrid were also up for candidacy. The games are scheduled to begin July 24 and end August 9, 2020.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

5 Widespread Myths About Interracial Relationships

5 Widespread Myths About Interracial Relationships Interracial couples, marriages, and relationships are more common today than ever before in the United States. Marriages between people of different races reached a record high of 8.4 percent in 2010, according to the New York Times. Despite the rising rate of interracial marriage, mixed-race couples not only continue to face scrutiny and disapproval but sweeping generalizations from outsiders. Individuals in interracial relationships often are accused of entering such unions for less than honorable reasons. This review of the myths that shroud interracial couples indicate that romance across the color line remains a source of stigma. Interracial Means Black And White Arguably the biggest myth about interracial couples is that such pairings always involve a white person and a person of color. Interracial couples consisting of two people who belong to racial minority groups are largely overlooked in the mainstream culture. This is likely because discussions of race in general still are based on a black-white paradigm. Nonetheless, interracial couples of color have been the inspiration for films such as â€Å"Mississippi Masala,† in which Denzel Washington plays a character who falls in love with a South Asian woman. Moreover, the comedy â€Å"Harold Kumar Go to White Castle† paired the Korean-American protagonist up with a Latina love interest. Of course, a number of such couples exist in real life as well. Famous examples of interracial couples of color include musician Carlos Santana and his wife, Cindy Blackman, an African American; and Wesley Snipes and his wife, Nakyung Park, a Korean American. As the United States grows more diverse, interracial couples of color will only grow more common. Accordingly, discussion of interracial relationships should include pairings of Asian Americans and African Americans, Hispanic Americans and Arab Americans, and so forth. People in Interracial Relationships Never Date Their Own Race Strangers often assume that people in interracial relationships have long dated exclusively outside of their race. It’s undeniable that some people display strong preferences for a particular race. Indian-American actress Mindy Kaling, for example, essentially told Us Magazine that she favors white men.   â€Å"I embarrassingly love blond men - hot pinups like Chris Evans and Chris Pine,† she said. â€Å"I feel like people expect me to have an edgy choice, like Justin Theroux, and I’m just like, ‘Nope! I want Captain America!’† In addition, Kaling has been called out for casting solely white men as her love interests on her show â€Å"The Mindy Project.† Unlike Mindy Kaling, however, many people in interracial relationships don’t have a type. They have dated both intra-racially and interracially and just happened to end up with partners who don’t share their ethnic background. They don’t have a pattern of choosing solely white mates or solely Asian mates or Hispanic ones. Singer Rihanna,  journalist Lisa Ling and actor Eddie Murphy are all examples of people whove dated both within and outside of their racial group.  Ã‚   If you don’t know the dating history of a person in an interracial relationship, don’t assume that they have no interest in dating members of their own race. Unless you’re interested in dating the person in question, however, ask yourself why you care whom this person dates. If the person has bought into the idea that some racial groups are more desirable than others and date such people because they consider them to be â€Å"catches† or â€Å"trophies,† there’s little you can do to change their mindset anyway. They’ll likely excuse their dating patterns as being simple â€Å"preferences† rather than examine how our racially stratified society has influenced them to find some racial groups more appealing than others. Minorities in Interracial Romances Hate Themselves People of color who date interracially are often accused of suffering from self-hatred. While some minorities date whites in particular for social status, many minorities who date across the color line are proud of their heritage. They’re not dating interracially to dilute their bloodlines. They simply felt a spark with someone who doesn’t share their racial background. This doesn’t mean that they don’t identify with their minority group and are ashamed to be part of that group. A number of African Americans who married interracially have fiercely fought for civil rights and the uplift of their racial group, including the abolitionist Frederick Douglass, playwright Lorraine Hansberry, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall and actor-singer Harry Belafonte. Whites in Interracial Marriages Are Rebelling While minorities in interracial relationships are often accused of hating themselves, whites in such relationships are often accused of rebelling. They didn’t marry interracially because they truly loved their spouse, outsiders say, but because they wanted to get back at their parents. Are there white people who bring home a person of another race because they know it will drive their parents crazy? Probably. But it’s unlikely that these people would have a sustained relationship with someone of a different race just to spite their parents, let alone marry interracially to do so.  Ã‚   Minorities in Interracial Relationships Date Down It’s a common belief that people of color in interracial relationships, especially with whites, date down rather than up. In other words, their partners aren’t particularly attractive, moneyed or educated. They are not dating â€Å"catches.† The rationale here is that whites enjoy so much privilege in society that minorities who pursue romances with them aren’t exactly picky. Any white person will do. This, of course, is a sweeping generalization. Unless the only criterion a person has in a mate is that she be white, it’s doubtful that this generalization applies. Rosie Cuison Villazor, a law professor and editor of Loving v. Virginia in a Post-Racial World, has found that the income of interracial couples tends to vary by the racial makeup of the couple. â€Å"Forty-two percent of white men/Asian women married couples both went to college, compared with 20 percent of white/Hispanic married couples and 17 percent of white/black married couples,† she found. â€Å"A look at earnings also reveals racial and gender differences: the median combined income of white/Asian couples is $70,952, compared with $53,187 for white/black married couples.† The fact that black-white couples earn less than white-Asian couples reflects the fact that blacks generally earn less than whites in the United States, while Asians tend to earn as much or more money than whites. Given this and the fact people of all races are more likely to romance those who share their economic and education background, it’s inaccurate to suggest that minorities in interracial relationships marry or date down. Sources Maillard, Kevin Noble. Loving vs. Virginia in a Post-Racial World. Rose Cuison Villazor (Editor), Cambridge University Press, May 16, 2012. Villazor, Rose Cuison. Marrying Across Racial Lines, but Still Seeing Lines. The New York Times, November 17, 2014.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Relevant Organizational Records of Your Performance Review Meeting Essay

Relevant Organizational Records of Your Performance Review Meeting - Essay Example After analyzing the self performance form, I can clearly tell there were areas where he thinks he does exceptionally well and then there were those areas where he thinks he hasn't performed that well. After getting done with the performance self review form, I asked him some questions and those questions were based on his response on the self performance form. Other then that during the entire course of the meeting I had a notepad with me in which I noted down details regarding this interaction with Mr. X. The main points that I looked forward to in this meeting were whether Mr. X was confident, calm and composed during the entire self review process or he was too afraid of being appraised. I also had a company evaluation form which I had to fill in as I interviewed him. This form contained many questions but the main ones were regarding his performance during the interview, whether I thought he had what it took to be promoted, if I thought he had leadership qualities, was Mr. X to m e capable of handling more responsibilities and if he was capable of performing well under pressure. All these questions lead towards the main question which asked me if Mr. X in my opinion is deserving enough to be promoted to the next level the company's hierarchy. Reflections On Your Performance For Your CPD Record The meeting started off right on time. Before I handled over the self performance form to Mr. X, I introduced myself and told him the what the purpose of this meeting was. I informed Mr. X what job reviews actually are. I told him it is a method by which the on job performance of of an employee is measured or evaluated by a senior manager in the company. I informed him that such performance reviews take place once every year and explained him the entire process of this self performance. I personally think I did really well to let him know about the entire process and how things work out on the promotional scale. However, I think there was a communication gap between us and that could be attributed to me speaking to fast. I think this is one thing I really need to improve on and this is not really the first time that this has happened to me. Prior to this, in yet another performance appraisal interview, a candidate complained he was unable to interpret what I said as I he complained as I spoke too fast. After explaining him all this, I handled the performance evaluation form to him and told him how to fill it out. I told him about the possible options on the form and that he should select one which suits him best. It took him around half an hour to get done with the performance evaluation form and as soon as he was done he handed over the form to me. After receiving the evaluation form I first looked at his answers and I determined that he personally has a very balanced opinion about he he performs at work. Subsequently, I designed my questions keeping in view of what I got to know of him through the evaluation. However, here I must agree to the o ne fault I made after looking at the self evaluation form. I personally thought that Mr. X was a very proud person and I came to this view after looking at the evaluation form and finding out there were generally more ticks on â€Å"excellent† and â€Å"good† to the answers then on â€Å"poor† and â€Å"average†. My views however changed as I moved on to interview him. When I asked him if he thought he's a good worker, he told me that he thinks he doesn't know if he's good or not but he said he

Office Art Memo Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Office Art Memo - Assignment Example The paper "Office Art Memo" focuses on the six pieces of art. Impressionists interplay of lights and shadows form an important premise of these paintings. Another characteristic is its unfinished smudged brushstrokes compared to following lines and contours in traditional painting. Included among the foremost of these painters are Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Pierre Auguste Renoir, Paul Cezanne, Edgar Degas, Berthe Morisot and Andrew Sisely. The first painting I have chosen from the 19th century Impressionist Era is a replica of Camille Pissarro’s ‘The Garden of Pontoise’. It is oil on canvas. This painting I feel is very true to life, as all of Pissarro’s work was, and shows a young woman being entertained by a small child as she sits in the shade of her umbrella on a bench in a garden. Nothing could be a more simple expression of the glory of nature as a mother enjoying the antics of her child. The bond between mother and child, the pride and the glory of motherhood and nurturing is embodied in this work, but so elegantly set in the backdrop of this colorful garden that no one could help looking at it. The bright hues and colors of the early evening are evident here. The glory of the colorful garden in bloom takes one away from the business of life and helps one appreciate the value of leisure. No wonder Pissarro is regarded as among the founding fathers of Impressionism. The second piece of Impressionist painting I have selected is a replica of the Portrait of Charles and Georges Durand-Ruel., which the artist Pierre Auguste Renoir painted in 1882. In the portrait painting, both father and son are seated on a garden bench with greenery in the backdrop. The features of both are unmistakably alike, and the father is dressed more elegantly in an open three piece suit, with his left arm around his son. The son Georges is attired in a purple closed suit, and is also shown sporting a cigarette in his left hand. The father does not see m appalled at this circumstance and it shows his open-mindedness and confidence in his son. I am hoping here that the selection of this painting will signify

Friday, October 18, 2019

Fair trade Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Fair trade - Essay Example World trade has been increasing at an average rate of six percent for the last 20 years, which is twice the rate of world output. The integration of the world economy with the help of trade has lifted the living standards of the people within these developing nations, which is a positive sign. Sustained and consistent economic growth requires policies that can open trade and investment with the rest of the world. There is proof to it and it is that there has not been a single nation that has achieved economic stability without being open to the world for trade. International trade requires liberalization, i.e., openness to all and sundry within the world no matter what. The living standards are in direct proportion with them. There is a high need to promote and liberalize the manner in which trade is carried out within the world economy. It needs to be more generous to everyone and anyone as well as helpful for the developing nations so that more and more trade is carried out between the economic world markets. (Miles, 2006) Agriculture is one such example of being more liberal for the international trade market. Liberalization by both industrial and developing nations is necessary to realize trade’s potential that acts as a driving force for economic growth and de velopment. It is up to the industrial and developed nations to be more broadminded towards the developing ones so that trade barriers are removed in the wake of open trade between all the countries listed in the economic world. Fair trade is a social movement which is organized in nature and it basically presents a model which is accepted worldwide. It comes directly under the norms of the international trade regimes whereby it promotes payment of a fair price in accordance with the social and environmental standards in different areas of production related with goods and supplies. Fair trade has the emphasis on exporting goods and

Law Cases Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Law Cases - Essay Example Additionally, it questions if limiting specific conduct, can be due to an opinion that is unpopular. South Carolina Supreme Court decision was that the state had no power to arrest and charge the demonstrators totally based on the opinions they were expressing. The court indicated that the defendants were convicted of an offense that was general in nature and not of exact definition. The Supreme Court thus reversed the decision of the State Trial Court. Due to lack of hostility on the side of demonstrators as well as spectators in addition to lack of clear evidence that the traffic flow was disturbed by the demonstrators made the Supreme Court to reverse the decision. According to the Supreme Court, the state suppressed the demonstrator’s freedom of speech. The case involved Florida A&M students who demonstrated in a non-public drive near a jailhouse premises. Despite being warned by the sheriff, they continued with the demonstrations leading to the arrest of 107 students. After being convicted by Florida Circuit Court as well as the District Court of Appeals, the petitioners indicated that they were denied fourteenth amendments rights. The major issue in this case is to determine whether or not the students had the right to engage in a demonstration on non-public premises. Another issue was to determine whether the jailhouse is included in the category of public office. According to the Supreme Court, the drives as well as the jailhouse premises are not in the category of public property. Since the petitioners had no intention of seeking service from the jail the abatement argument was dismissed. During the hearing, violation of constitutional rights was not perceived to have an impact on the case. During this case, the reasoning was that the state has the right to enforce its rules to protect the ground that is private. There lacked recorded evidence

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Proposal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Proposal - Essay Example Like the students, educators also want to feel safe, secured, respected, and well - supported. Rooney (2003) suggests that â€Å"the wisdom of the good school must be worked out by those who live within its walls† yet there are so many issues in education which varies from highly qualified staff to unsafe school buildings and all areas in between. According to Weissbourd (2003), "schools can best support students moral development by helping teachers manage the stresses of their profession by increasing teachers capacity for reflection and empathy.† Another concern addressed by disenfranchised educators is the lack of state and federal funding to secure an adequate education. â€Å"School districts in poor rural communities have suffered funding issues for generations† (Borman, 2003); however, under public interest, the concern for teachers’ satisfaction oftentimes goes unnoticed. A qualitative random sample will be drawn from 20 K-12 public school teachers representing Dillon County School District Two. Survey and interview questions will be distributed to each educator. The researcher will then analyze the data using the appropriate statistical method. A. Problem under study: Lack of safety and salary as well as unsatisfactory administrative and parental support are the causative factors in the decline of the teachers entering the classroom. The problem addressed by this study is the significance teacher job satisfaction on student academic achievement. F. Data Collection Procedures: Survey forms and questionnaires comprising 10 questions will be distributed to 20 K - 12 educators from 6 schools in Dillon County District Two. This one week study consists of surveys and interview questions that will highlight on teachers’ satisfaction and students’ achievement. Problem Statement: The lack of teachers’ safety, salaries, and unsatisfactory administrative and parental support are the causative factors for teachers’

Islam College Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Islam College - Essay Example In Islam, there are two dominant schools of thoughts. One school of thought agrees upon the concept of spiritual excellence through meditation and struggle for nearness of Allah; the other school of thoughts is strict about the worldly affairs and have narrowed the domain to worldly affairs and five pillars of Islam. The Sufi Islam has strong concept of Sacred Law - this law is between God and the follower. As per law, the Sufi has to maintain secrecy in his spiritual affairs, and matters compounding to identity and matters of God are kept private. It is also claimed that it is difficult to comprehend the power and spirituality of God, and therefore it remains beyond the scope of human understanding and intellect. The relationship between God and his follower is of affection and love, and is beyond any justification based upon intellectual topology. The human being with average spiritual status will probably fail to understand the expression and revelation of the Sufi. The Sufis have therefore gain unique status and repute in their society, and have been popular because of their uncommon and strange expressions towards divine authority. In Sufi Islam, there exists concept of mentor or guide also called Mursid. The Mursid is person who has achieved spiritual success, and has developed contact and affiliation with God. The followers of Mursid are called Mureed - the followers do not consider their Mursid as equivalent to God but for them the Mursid is passage towards spiritual divinity. The Mursid is respected and followed because of his spiritual affiliation and accomplishments by Mureed. Mursid shall never be confused with Prophets - rather the entity of Mursid is based upon his spiritual accomplishments and love for God. Nawawi is considered among the great Sufi scholar in Islamic world. According to Nawawi concept of Sufism is about maintaining close affiliation with God. The Sufis are individuals who have submitted their life towards God, and have spent their time, money, intellect and life for maintaining spiritual bond with the Supreme Lord. The five important actions contribute towards the spiritual marvels of the follower, and have been identified by Nawawi as 1. maintaining close spiritual affiliation with God with meditation and Zikr privately and publicly; 2. abide by the injunctions of Quran and Sunnah; 3. shun assistance from public and develop liaison with God for assistance and support, and believe that God will itself manifest source for help; 4. contentment is essential - and follower shall be satisfied with all bestowed upon by God; 5. seek assistance and guidance from God directly (Rafik12-34) The affection and love for God has been restricted to the observance of the fundamentals of Islam. The interpretation of Nawawi about Sufism is itself different - the intensity of love and affection has not been discussed. The Shiite concept talks about the intensity and seriousness of love, there bond between the God and follower is so deep rather the follower is above the entity of human being and is strongly concentrated with the qualities and characteristics of God - the purity, the spirituality and kindness. Dr. Chittick has discussed this expression of love and spirituality which was possessed by Rumi. It is claimed that Rumi was probably among the few who reached the climax of their spiritual journey. Sufism has been regarded

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Proposal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Proposal - Essay Example Like the students, educators also want to feel safe, secured, respected, and well - supported. Rooney (2003) suggests that â€Å"the wisdom of the good school must be worked out by those who live within its walls† yet there are so many issues in education which varies from highly qualified staff to unsafe school buildings and all areas in between. According to Weissbourd (2003), "schools can best support students moral development by helping teachers manage the stresses of their profession by increasing teachers capacity for reflection and empathy.† Another concern addressed by disenfranchised educators is the lack of state and federal funding to secure an adequate education. â€Å"School districts in poor rural communities have suffered funding issues for generations† (Borman, 2003); however, under public interest, the concern for teachers’ satisfaction oftentimes goes unnoticed. A qualitative random sample will be drawn from 20 K-12 public school teachers representing Dillon County School District Two. Survey and interview questions will be distributed to each educator. The researcher will then analyze the data using the appropriate statistical method. A. Problem under study: Lack of safety and salary as well as unsatisfactory administrative and parental support are the causative factors in the decline of the teachers entering the classroom. The problem addressed by this study is the significance teacher job satisfaction on student academic achievement. F. Data Collection Procedures: Survey forms and questionnaires comprising 10 questions will be distributed to 20 K - 12 educators from 6 schools in Dillon County District Two. This one week study consists of surveys and interview questions that will highlight on teachers’ satisfaction and students’ achievement. Problem Statement: The lack of teachers’ safety, salaries, and unsatisfactory administrative and parental support are the causative factors for teachers’

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Stallings Culture of the Savannah River Valley Assignment

Stallings Culture of the Savannah River Valley - Assignment Example The names island is situated eight miles from Georgia. Since the 1850s, archeologists have been reviewing the site and eventually proved that the site is one of the utmost significant locations in the history of United States (Sassaman 79-104). Over the past 140 years, more than 12 excavations have been conducted on the island by archeologists and looters. The existence of intensive prehistoric habitation, shell mound, and archeological deposits makes Stallings culture as important. The author, Kenneth E. Sassaman has tried to focus on the activity of the people of the Shoals. The first argument of the author is to present a story about the fall and rise of the Stallings culture. The second argument is to discuss the story of archeology which helps to enlighten the history of Stallings. The author wants to highlight the Stallings culture and bring it back to life with archeological interpretations and excavations. The Stallings culture has gained attention for many decades by archeological. This is mainly due to its setting within a place and time of many archeological deposits such as soapstone artifacts and fiber-tempered pottery. The author vividly described the reason behind the importance and flourish of Stallings culture for over 300 years. The author initiates with the argument of the population of the South-east coast and America. Kenneth explains the history of the Late Archaic culture of the Savannah River valley with a chart. The chart is based on the radiocarbon age. The Stallings fiber-tempered pottery and its technologies are introduced by the author to provide evidence on the importance of Stallings culture. Kenneth also focuses on defining the geographical, typological and chronological parameters ceramics as an evidence to focus on the Stallings culture. Several controversial theories of the people of Stallings have been offered by Kenneth.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Imperialism and Colonization Essay Example for Free

Imperialism and Colonization Essay Colonization and imperialism are inherently associated with an economic model that is meant to boost the economy of the colonizing power (herein referred to as benefactor state) by providing target market for manufactured goods and source of raw materials. During the twentieth century most colonies gained independence or autonomy resulting in a disruption of the economic model associated with colonization and imperialism. A current trend is globalization which necessitates a complete reversal of the economic role of states. The role has changed from serving as a market for the benefactor state to manufacturing products using inexpensive labor that are then sold back to the benefactor state. Many states (particularly in Africa) have not been able to adjust to this change and have, thus, been caught between colonization and globalization without strong economic ties to other nations. To minimize conflict within a state and between states, the respective nations must have ties that are strong enough to transcend national boundaries. This is evident when examining global trends such as colonization and globalization which tend to focus nations that would normally be at odds on a common goal. In the case of colonization, natives of occupied territories are inclined to unite against the occupying power. A current trend towards globalization has forced nations to unite because of an increased economic dependence between states. The claim (albeit untrue) that there has never been a war between two countries having McDonalds underscores the importance of economic ties that can transcend national boundaries. A History of Imperialism and Colonization During the height of colonialism, Britain controlled over a quarter of the land and one third of the population. Combined, Britain and eight other European countries controlled approximately 84% of the earth’s surface. (Conklin: 1) What factors allowed Europeans to exert such a strong influence on other parts of the world? More importantly, what were the motivations for subjugating the rest of the world that have made such a profound impact even in the modern world? J. A. Hobson describes the driving force behind olonization as â€Å"the investor who cannot find at home the profitable use he seeks for his capital, and insists that his Government should help him to profitable and secure investments abroad. † (Hobson: 15) On the practical side of colonization, armies are needed and colonization can’t occur until an industrial revolution begins. Industrialization requires cheap labor, a navy, a target market to buy surplus p roducts and raw materials. Without a large enough target audience for selling goods, the industrial revolution would have been stymied and Britain’s economy and industry could not have advanced as rapidly. Essentially, raw materials are shipped out of colonies to the colonizing country, manufactured into a finished product using cheap labor and then sold back to the colonies at profit. (Kollenbroich) Undoubtedly, there are other factors that motivated European powers to colonize; Christianity, national pride and civilizing those perceived as savages to name some. However, there is no denying that most colonies became economically dependent on the colonizing country. This implies that economic reasons, regardless of other motivating factors for colonization, were a driving force in colonization. In fact, the factors such as Christianity, national pride and the mission to civilize would often go hand in hand with the economic motivation and serve to conceal the economic reasons from the general public. (Kollenbroich) M. K. Ghandi agrees with that statement, â€Å"England is a nation of shopkeepers,† (attributed to Napoleon) and goes on to describe how the British, â€Å"hold whatever dominions they have for the sake of their commerce. † (Ghandi: 25) Continuing on the same note, Ghandi explains that the British view the world as a vast market for their goods. According to Ghandi, the British didn’t conquer India per se; rather the acceptance of British commerce, lifestyle and law allowed the British to govern India. For this very reason, Ghandi promotes a lifestyle lacking in machinery. â€Å"What did India do before these articles were introduced? Precisely the same should be done today. † (Ghandi 28-29) In Ghandi’s opinion, removing economic ties to Britain and rest of Europe, India would eventually attain sovereignty. Clearly, the economy plays a vital role in colonization and is a strong motivation by providing raw materials and markets to sell finished goods. The question that begs to be asked is: How were Europeans able to convince or force other parts of the world to accept colonization? The answer has everything to do with image. If natives didn’t believe that the Europeans were superior, revolts would have been much more widespread. In turn, European militaries would have been spread too thin and outnumbered. The key to preventing this lies in creating the illusion for natives that the Europeans are superior in every way and resistance is futile. The style of rule is as important as the fact the Europeans are in control of the colony. Typically the French would use a divide and conquer strategy. They would bring in French administrators and subject the natives to French culture. This was effective because the French often grouped tribes or groups of natives that didn’t get along. Instead of fighting the French, the natives would fight amongst themselves. On the other hand, the British would preserve parts of the local system and choose natives leaders. This was effective for the British because it gave the natives the illusion of a certain level of autonomy while the British remained in control. Kollenbroich) The socio-economic model in most colonies was noticeably lacking a middle class. On one hand there are the natives who are often dirt poor by European standards and on the other hand there are the business and elite classes that are continually sucking profit out of the colonies. This is somewhat true of even Europe because of industrialization which left a large lower class working in the factories fo r minimal wages. The Trend of Globalization The push towards a more global economy has several important consequences. Many states that were once colonizing powers have seen their role shift to that of economic powerhouses with global cities that serve as command and control centers for the economy. (Sassen, 4) In the wake of globalization, an increasing number of firms have centralized their business presence in the downtown areas of global cities and placed numerous factories in foreign states to take advantage of lower labor prices. The placement or acquisition of factories in other states is known as foreign direct investment (FDI). The five major exporters of capital (United States, United Kingdom, Japan, France and Germany) account for 70 percent of FDI (Sassen 11). According to Sassen, â€Å"the growth in FDI has been embedded in the internationalization of production of goods and services. † (Sassen: 10) This is readily evident when considering the number of factories being built in Latin American and Southeast Asian. The semiconductor explosion coupled with other industries choosing to locate in Asia has led to an â€Å"emergence of Southeast Asia as a crucial transnational space for production. (Sassen: 11) Prominent American companies have increasingly moved the manufacturing of products offshore to take advantage of more lax labor laws and significantly lower wages. The transition from colonization to globalization has seen the role of foreign countries move from buying products to creating products cheaply. The economics of intervention has played a more dominant role in foreign policy and will continue to do so in the future. For decades the United States and Soviet Union struggled to see capitalism and communism spread, respectively. The struggle played out both economically and militarily in many countries throughout the world and is important because more often than not decolonized countries would be in need of economic and sometimes military intervention. More recently, the United States and other countries have faced decisions about whether to intervene in situations such as Somalia and other African states. Interventions such as these are often viewed by the much of the public as too little too late and this can be attributed, at least in part, to a lack of economic interest in the conflict. In fact, intervention costs millions and sometimes billions of dollars which, in many politicians’ eyes, is not justified. To make matters worse, politicians are very careful about labeling conflicts as massacres or genocide because as soon as a conflict is labeled as such, it ethically requires intervention. What happens then to a state caught between colonization and globalization that has little or no economical tie to the global economy? If the conflict receives enough attention on the world stage and there is enough bloodshed, then there is a good chance that a peacekeeping force will intervene. However, the chance of intervention in a conflict with little or no bloodshed is much slimmer and may never materialize. Case Study: Zimbabwe According to the International Crisis Group, â€Å"Zimbabwe’s economy is hemorrhaging. † (Zimbabwe: 5) Zimbabwe’s economy has shrunk approximately 25 percent since 1998, inflation is more than 228% percent (Zimbabwe: CIA) and unemployment is higher than 60 percent. Foreign direct investment (FDI) has decreased from 436 million USD in 1998 to 4. 5 million USD. The FDI alone is indicative of an ever increasing gap between today’s global economy and the economy of Zimbabwe. Any economic ties that Zimbabwe has with the rest of the world are slowly wasting away with a decrease in gold production and decreased foreign aid. In fact, reducing hours and production volume is now the norm and has led to a scarcity of basic commodities within the country. To make a poor situation even worse, the government of Zimbabwe has been directing farm seizures that have led to 95 percent of large scale farmers either stopping operations or being severely disrupted. The food production has declined by 40 percent and prompted a United Nations (UN) report that warns of the potential of famine. If predictions hold true, Zimbabwe’s harvests will not be enough to feed the entire population Zimbabwe will be forced to import food. The government has gone as far as deploying army and police units to deal with riots, should they break out. (Zimbabwe) The ruling ZANU-PF party has been systematically eliminating opposition from the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC). The ZANU-PF has been accused of distributing food to party members rather than equally which means that even children of MDC supporters have food withheld. ZANU-PF supporters, civil servants and traditional leaders are blocking MDC supporters from acquiring maize †¦ It is clear that some schemes have been discriminatory for months without the donor being aware. (Zimbabwe: 7) Thus far, the rest of the world has been passive about the happenings in Zimbabwe. In part, this can be attributed to the need to intervene if a country or countries declare a humanitarian crisis in Zimbabwe. As noted earlier the FDI has dramatically declined resulting in essentially no economic ties between Zimbabwe and the rest of the world. More than likely, aid or intervention will not take place without a crisis that places Zimbabwe in the center of the world stage. Zimbabwe is just one former colony of many (in Africa and other parts of the world) that gained independence and left behind the imperialistic economy. Unfortunately, Zimbabwe has stepped out of one economic model and failed to step into the global economy. This is evident in the dramatically decreased FDI and production as well as the lack of intervention from other states. Focus on Former African Colonies World War II left the European powers (with the exception of Portugal) scrambling to leave Africa. As alluded to earlier, colonizing is an expensive business that takes enormous resources and ultimately is profitable for a relatively small number people. Most European colonies in Africa were never as profitable as had been hoped for couldn’t be justified like India and some other colonies. The bad name given to imperialism by Hitler helped accelerate the process in Africa as well as other parts of the world. Due to a lack of economic motivation capable of transcending national boundaries, many former colonies have descended into civil wars and other disputes between nations within the state. As demonstrated with Zimbabwe, this conflict is not necessarily militarily (although this is often the case) carried out and may be something as appalling as withholding food or other basic commodities from a portion of the population. Countless other African states such as Somali, Uganda, Liberia, Sudan, Ethiopia, Rwanda and the Congo have had or continue to have conflicts between nations. Many countries in Africa are lacking a solid economy that isn’t dominated by a single sector such as agriculture.