Wednesday, June 19, 2019
Investigation of the cardiovascular changes and cognitive effects of Research Paper
Investigation of the cardiovascular changes and cognitive effects of commercially available energy drink on student in lectures - Research Paper sample127 Finnegan, 2003, p. 147). Energy Drinks which are so called because they are thought to be stimulant in nature, providing the consumers with an instant boost of energy and alertness and decreasing lethargy and sleepiness, were first introduced in the global market in the late nineties and have been gaining widespread fame ever since (Kim, 2003, p. 2). Energy Drinks are categorized as stimulant drinks, which have been specify by the Stimulant Drinks Committee as a beverage which typically contains caffeine, taurine and vitamin(s) and may contain an energy source (e.g. carbohydrate) and/or other substance(s), marketed for the special purpose of providing real or perceived enhanced physiological and/or performance effects (Finnegan, 2003, p. 248). The manufacturers of Energy Drinks claim that such drinks enhance both psychological and physical functions, resulting in improved physical endurance, increased alertness and concentration, augmented reaction speed and an elevated affect (Kim, 2003, p. 2 Kaminer, 2010, p. 643). Statistics reveal that the United States ranks as the largest consumer of energy drinks worldwide with an annual consumption amounting to approximately 290 million gallons (Weise, 2008 cited in Higgins et al., 2010, p. 1033). It is interesting to note that the age group in which the consumption of such drinks is the highest is amidst 11-35 years (Ballard et al., 2010 cited in Higgins et al., 2010, p. 1033). Such drinks are common amongst the adolescent age group, in particular, amongst students due to a variety of reasons including the perception that these drinks help to boost angiotensin converting enzymes performance especially during athletic performances and during exams, help in overcoming fatigue and sleepiness and also because such drinks have now become a furor nowdays and are wid ely available during parties and other social gatherings (Paddock, 2008). There are several varieties of Energy Drinks available commercially and amongst them, Red Bull is one of the near famous and commonly consumed Energy Drink. The key lively ingredients of this drink include caffeine (approximately 32 mg/dL), taurine (approximately 400 mg/dL or 1000 mg per drink), glucuronolactone (approximately 240 mg/dL or 600mg per drink), and sugar (as an energy source) (Kim, 2003, p. 2 Ragsdale, et al., 2010, p. 1193). In addition, these drinks also contain water and small quantities of some vitamins and minerals (Ragsdale, et al., 2010, p. 1199). Amongst the active ingredients, caffeine and taurine are found to contribute most significantly towards the aforementioned positive effects. An important component of energy drinks is carbohydrates which are present in significant amounts in the form of in concentrated forms of sugars such high-fructose corn syrup or sucrose. It is a well known fact that carbohydrates are the study energy metabolites of the human body. Studies have revealed that administration of moderately concentrated solutions of carbohydrates, or amounts between 25-50 g of glucose, help in improving exercise capacity and hamper the occurrence of post-exercise fatigue (Scholey & Kennedy, 2004 Higgins et al., 2010). In addition, consumption of glucose in levels similar to those present in Energy Drinks has been found to improve cognitive functions including attention and reaction clock (Smit et al., 2004). On the other hand, caffiene which is the other key active component of Energy Drinks, is known to be a central nervous system stimulant.